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فيلم: DEEP URBANISM – قسمت ۳/۷ – Deep Space

Title:DEEP URBANISM – قسمت ۳/۷ – Deep Space DEEP URBANISM / A WORKING HYPOTHESIS Lecture 3 – Deep Space Lecture توسط شهرساز و معمار مارکوس شفر برای مدرسه عالی اقتصاد، مسکو، روسیه (HSE؛ روسی: «Высшая школа экономики») زبان: انگلیسی تاریخ: ۰۶٫۱۱٫۲۰٫ قسمتي از متن فيلم: Uh welcome to the third lecture with the title of […]

Title:DEEP URBANISM – قسمت ۳/۷ – Deep Space

DEEP URBANISM / A WORKING HYPOTHESIS Lecture 3 – Deep Space Lecture توسط شهرساز و معمار مارکوس شفر برای مدرسه عالی اقتصاد، مسکو، روسیه (HSE؛ روسی: «Высшая школа экономики») زبان: انگلیسی تاریخ: ۰۶٫۱۱٫۲۰٫

قسمتي از متن فيلم: Uh welcome to the third lecture with the title of deep space and of course there are few things which are as immediately pleasurable for human beings as spaces seeing them moving through experiencing them you know the pleasure of kicking a ball via the bilaterally actually organized soccer field therefore immediately

Changing the patterns on this space or the pleasure of walking through the sensorial richness of a forest with its many viewpoints vistas its smells and textures or walking through a city with its many views layers of history layers of materials sounds and smells so it’s of course a bit

Sacrilicious almost to talk about space in a matter of an hour and a half but nevertheless i would like to do it and focusing more on an almost mathematical property of space in order to continue our story of interactions transactions and relations in the service of connectedness

I want to show you emergence in space we have seen this image already around ten thousand before now where in goblety tip baby argue the first time settlements started and the first time of course these tight interactions became possible which over time led to the emergence of the tools and narratives

The infrastructures and institutions which allow us to have our complex urban lives which changed from the very early forms of urbanization to increasingly technologically adept forms with larger reach more energy more power and therefore more congestions at its notes and of course again what we are experiencing right now the digital connectivities

Which allow us even tighter integrations in the end of course ending up in this globalized world we have today or this planetary urbanization which we enjoy but at the same time of course all the victim of so we looked at this arrow in time and now i wanna cut

So to speak perpendicularly to this arrow and look at space and when you look at space again of course it is in the service of this interaction transaction relation and it’s in the service of stabilizing it and over time this stable form of space became increasingly complex it became sped up by industrialization

Enabled by virtualization and therefore completely global also with digitalization you know human beings are embodied minds we are bipedal we have two legs we have a front in the back and over three billions of years we evolved to exist on this planet with its gravity its terrain its sunlight it’s up and down

Right and left backward and forward and this means that we behave in spaces in predictable ways also because as embodied minds it takes energy to move around spaces it is tiring to walk long distances it is dangerous to turn sharp corners and it also takes energy because your path of inertia

Needs to be changed into a new vector and all of that together basically leads us to behave in predictable ways this is what you see on the left-hand side in terms of this so-called visual integration pattern it basically means a mathematical prediction on where you will have most

People based on the fact that we tend to follow sight lines and we tend to avoid turning sharp corners and when you look at the actual behavior of people which is the right-hand image also here um in the tate britain following 100 people in reality then you see that these actual moving patterns

Very much follow the prediction which we generated mathematically on the left hand side so you see in the axis we have most most people and spaces which are connected in more ways than just one on the left hand side and are more easily accessible by straight side lines and by

Not too many turns those spaces tend to be frequented more on the left the mathematical prediction on the right hand actual reality what’s behind this is a theory a method and even a software called space syntax developed by bill hillier and space syntax basically encompasses a series of theories and techniques for the

Analysis of spatial configurations and the general idea behind it is that spaces can be broken down into components they can be analyzed as networks of choices then represented as maps and graphs that describe the relative connectivity and integration of those spaces and the important thing again is

We are embodied minds we have bodies we exist in the gravity valve of the planet here we have to deal with gravity inertia and friction when moving through these spaces and it is tiring to walk long distances and it is scary to turn sharp corners basically saying we are not computers

Right for us space is not equal um and spaces need to be traversed and that basically leads us to the possibility of structuring these spaces and the fact that we tend to behave in predictable way in structured spaces again because we are embodied beings now when you look at cities cities are immersive

Realities they’re incredibly rich in terms of their sensorial stimuli and we also learned to decode these spaces in cultural ways we can read them you know read them literally so gap reading gap or on the right or oxford circus on their bus but we also read them implicitly you know we know

How to cross we know how to move we know on the right hand side behind the gap there’s an alley in which we can go we see that because of the volumes being occluding each other slightly but still clearly indicating an opening we also see that along this road which is oxford

Street of course it is very easy to move and we know that in the future when we walk along this axis more choices will come to us now on this road we see a lot of people and we also see a lot of stores and a lot of activity

The assumption now could be that there are a lot of people because there are a lot of stores it’s a shopping street so of course there are people because there is a lot of things to be bought and to be seen and yet when we look at a similar graph

Or map as we have seen before specifically at this one then we see here again an analysis a mathematical analysis of london organized in these red lines green yellow and blue lines and what these lines now represent is basically again a calculation of integration meaning we see here in red streets which run

Over long distances through the the street great of london and we see in blue streets which are only tiny segments which are connected only once or twice to other streets or saying it differently the red street segments are street segments which are linked in many more ways to

The overall street topology in london than the blue street segments and what we know from experience and therefore the red lines are much more integrated into the street topology of london than the blue lines and what we know from experience is that the red lines are those which give us

Access to the larger scale they give us access to the street network in better ways than the blue lines and usually on the red lines we tend to have commercial activity and frequency because there is footfall and on the blue street segments we tend to have housing which is intimate private

And more protected and a well-made city by the way is a city where we have blue and red close together well organized so that you have moments of privacy and intimacy but with a couple of steps you are in areas in the city which give you activity commercial opportunities and choices so

Therefore what space syntax tries to explain to us on the one hand by a mathematical analysis and on the other hand by verifying this mathematical analysis with empirical tools so counting people or following people it shows us basically that it is not that there are people because there are shops

But rather there are shops because there are people and the people are here based on the geometric and topological characteristics of the space they are here because these long axial lines in the topology of roads in london for example oxford streets are better integrated into the street network than the blue lines and

If we now again project time into this then we can argue that patterns so street patterns street connections frequency so the probability of having people or footfall and use so for example stores are co-developing they are emerging together and we see that specifically medieval cities are organized in a way where i have

Country roads coming together where they are meeting i have a marketplace around the markle place i have local streets and that then gives me these red lines and blue lines in close proximity so the three most popular ways of analyzing the street network developed by bill hillier is basically integration choice and

Depth distance integration basically measures how many turns have to be made from a street segment so street segment means any portion of the street from one node to the next node from one intersection to the next intersection so how many turns have to be made from a

Street segment to reach all other street segments in the network using the shortest pass the street segments that require the fewest turns to reach all other streets are called most integrated and are usually represented with hotter colors such as red or yellow then the next thing is called the choice measure

Which is easiest to understand as a water flow in the street network so the streets with the highest total values of accumulated flow are said to have the highest choice values you experience this by the way when you walk in cities you do not know and in well organized cities all of a

Sudden you tend to end up in the marketplace simply due to the probability of you making choices which bring you closer and closer to the core of the centrality of the city and finally we have the depth distance which explains the linear distance from the center point of each street segment

Segment to the center points of all other segments the streets with the lowest depth distance values are set to be nearest to all the other streets now this sounds all extremely complicated but again i think in when you think about your life in cities you know exactly what

This means you know it intuitively and it is the achievement of bill hillier on the top left respectively as a much older person he passed away about a year ago in the bottom middle that he formalized these intuitive feelings we have um specifically with his book which is now

Around 20 years old space is the machine and more importantly with his software depth map and his company and theory called space syntax ana rose the person to the left of him is a close friend of ours and we work with them quite a lot and in this book the

Space is the machine he formalized these kinds of things in different chapters so arguing for a need for an analytic theory of architecture he described cities as movement economies and he also described in chapter five why in the end he actually did this whole thing he actually started his inquiry

When looking at modernist develop housing developments in the uk realizing that for some reason the public spaces in these housing developments did not work they did not function a lot of spaces felt scary unprotected and were hot spots for criminal activities and he argued that these spaces were simply badly made

From a geometric topological point of view and with space syntax again then he took this first intuition and turned it into a method and a mathematical way of organizing space and he’s arguing argument then in the end is again space is the machine what he means with that is spaces are functioning

Almost like fusion reactors spaces allow us to generate density of interactions and with this density we can generate what we call urbanity with both its social cultural as well as is its commercial economic connotations and you could argue that natural movement is a kind of inertia theory

Again what i said before gravity inertia and friction when people move then their distribution in a spatial configuration will follow certain mathematical and morphological laws given only that movement is from all parts to all others and follows some principle of economy in root selection and again the principle of economy is in

Fact that we are embodied minds who get tired over time when walking long distances and we try to avoid to turn scary corners which we cannot look into this also means that indifference to a city like london which grew over many centuries and where this core emergence of space patterns of

Footfall so frequency and uses was able to co-develop in a way which feels natural right there were many many iterations of footpaths leading to the road system which we see today here brasilia was of course a modernist development which of us developed a lot more top down where um The spaces follow the conception of an architect urbanist they do not follow this naturally emerging co-developing space pattern which we have seen in london and that means very much that the system is not so badly organized so you see that there is a red axis in the middle

And a cross axis which kind of function but you also see that there is a total lack of polycentricity there is also a total lack of density in the center because the density then tends to look like this you know the density basically is that the center basically is a representational axis

Which has no interaction density associated with it other than these traffic points so the top-down planning does not always conform to what makes a good city what we need to take from it is that buildings and build spaces are probabilistic space machines able to absorb as well as generate social information through their

Configuration right they make successful or not so successful urban patterns which leads to successful or not successful social and economic spaces the building so not only the city but even the building itself is much more than a stage set or a background in itself it transmits through its

Spatial and physical form key aspects of the form of the social setup and that of course is the secret both of well-made architecture and well-thought-out urban spaces that they enhance a well-structured social space rather than work against it looking at it a bit more precisely you

Can also say that space syntax rests on three basic conceptions of space so the axial space which we already have seen right the straight sideline and possible paths which is basically arguing kind of describing the road system of a city in addition to that you also have the

Idea of the isovist which i will explain in a second which has been popularized by michael benedict at the university of texas actually incidentally a former professor of mine also called a view shed or visibility polygon which describes the field of view from any particular point and again describes scary

Or not scary interesting or boring spaces and finally we have the convex space popularized by john peppones and his collaborators at georgia tech which is an occupiable void where if he matched in the wireframe diagram no line between two of its points goes outside its perimeter all points within the

Polygon are visible to all other points within the polygon or a description of squares right what camillo city called the street facades or the square facades which wrap around a public space and which should be designed well so axial space gives its roads convex space gives us squares and isobases basically give us

View patterns and therefore also the possibility of moving through spaces so this is basically three isovests in in spaces and you see here what um basically we perceive when we are moving through spaces and looking at spaces again as embodied bipedal symmetrical embodied minds turning around for example on portland square on the

Right and looking at the city surrounding us so summarizing hillier presents a theory of urban emergence founded upon two ideas first that circulation in a city is determined by the configuration of lines into a global hierarchy of depth which he calls integrations second that the activities in the city

Adapt to take maximum advantage of this movement a phenomenon he calls a movement economy and most importantly this is not just a theory but his algorithms are empirically verified hence evidence based right they’re based on evidence and this is a powerful idea both for u.s architects as well as for u.s urbanists because

It gives you a way of thinking of cities really as these social engines or space machines or fusion reactors where you can predict in some ways both intuitively and now also algorithmically evidence-based in some ways which spaces work and which spaces might be not well integrated enough we use these tools

Kind of regularly in our urban designs i want to show you a case study where we did that and in this case study we will move to ljubljana in slovenia an eastern european country you see here the city center on the bottom left and the perimeter which we work we were

Working on in 2008 on the in the center it’s an area of around 230 hectare you see in the city center i’m not sure whether you can see my mouse but you see here the castle hill and the medieval city respectively the roman and later venetian city at the very core

You see on the left-hand side tivoli park and a design by jose blechnik one of the famous architects of the city and you see here also the inner city ring designed by fabiani who built up the ljubljana inner city after the big earthquake in 1895. the inner city is actually immensely

Beautiful you see here also in the very center the so-called three bridges also designed by pleuchnik and you see here the street pattern and its organization you know with medieval roads with the street pattern of the grinder side and all of course functioning in a highly integrated way where you as a tourist

But you also as an urban designer of course would of course would feel great pleasure walking through and experiencing these roads and immediately and instinctively you would have a feeling of safety and orientation this is a completely different side the side we were working on btc on the outside of the city

Inside the second ring which was a highway ring built with european money after slovenia joined the european union and btc basically became a success story of this new economy where consumer culture and car culture found a way of coming from the motor highway ring and driving in here finding huge amounts of shopping

Opportunities spaces at parking lots which were easy to use and then the people were then moving with their shopping goods when they’re moving out again via the motor highway ring going through the emerging suburbs in which an increasing amount of people were living so this is a success story

Of the car age and the commercial culture we started this uh cd in great detail with the bellagio institute writing a kind of a research report called light capital urban scripts for ljubljana ljubljana of course is specific in a sense that it’s actually a fairly isolated city so there’s a functional region

In the center of slovenia where all only two other functional regions functional urban regions are visible the maribor and copper there is a lack of connection to croatia and austria or italy in terms of a continuous urban pattern so ljubljana needs to kind of function on its own and in

The time when we came there in 2005 for some reason this city really didn’t work there were a lot of brownfield sites here in violet analyzed by janice kosciel who later became the vice mayor of the city and the dream of ljubljan slovenian channel was kind of

That with joining the eu of course now the big money should come all of these sites should be developed and prosperity should rise almost kind of as a no-brainer but that didn’t work and we tried to figure out why it didn’t work as a first step what you have here in the

Center of the graph is also the center of the city where you had high rents at the same time you had a lack of building land and in general a kind of frozen development so nothing functions no money came in nobody tried to do anything and we analyzed the reason

For the lack of development basically by four important points on the one hand joining europe generated very high expectations and therefore everybody was waiting for um kind of um better investment opportunities and overall a new identity therefore kind of didn’t develop the independence from yugoslavia also generated a transition economy

Similar to the transition economies in a lot of eastern european companies which led to a d denationalization therefore an unclear land ownership and a lack of trust and a trend to micro businesses so a trend to decentralization and therefore also due to the denaturalization and transition also lack of public land so

The city could not help to unlock the development in the center because ljubljana had a past as a provincial capital it also had a lack of governmental infrastructure because ljubljana was resisting investments from belgrade for a kind of a long time therefore you also had a lack of regional public transport

And because it is a small country and not part of a larger functional region you had a lack of critical mass therefore it was not so interesting for foreign investors and also there a new urban identity didn’t develop so the city center turned out to be not attractive

And tourists were mainly visiting the periphery while at the same time because of suburban suburbanization and sprawl btc and the ring developments were very very attractive right so somehow the spatial development of the city did not function even though there were there was actually a kind of a nice medieval and grinded side

So our deco arnovo kind of grinded side area in the center and actually a not so nice urban area at the periphery which however was of course functioning in terms of talking to people in the suburbs being attractive for a decentralized economy being attractive for a car based infrastructure

And in general a commercial culture so here we have suburban growth everybody tried to build his new european dream in the outskirts people invested into micro businesses and of course commercial culture and car culture fused together into this area in btc something many of you will recognize when you live in

Eastern european cities or even in russia of course you have developments like this in any city in the world basically speaking so here we have these two worlds we have the btc flourishing after 2000 after joining after 2001 after joining the eu and we have a beautiful city center however where

Development and investment didn’t work our task now in 2008 winning this international urban design competition basically was to turn this situation into that situation so allowing for a lot more investment but this investment would have been unthinkable only based on cars because the streets would not be able to cope

With all the new traffic which we are generating and of course this investment only in btc without a link to the city would be even more detrimental to the city center taking away development opportunities of the city rather than aiding it therefore an integration of the city as a whole

Was a very important goal of ours and very much therefore also a spatial and network integration so what you see here is a space syntax map with um a depth radius so an observation radius so to speak which is on a city-wide scale so here we don’t worry about

Somebody spending too much energy uh because of course uh because we’re looking at people for example sitting in a car we are people who can travel very very easily so here our algorithm looks at the city topology with a depth of more than two kilometers we don’t care how much energy we spend

And what we see here with this radius of observation is the big radial roads right the old radial roads and we also see here very clearly the motor highway ring right so we see here this city seen from a car perspective of course without looking at traffic

Jams in the city center and from a car perspective the motor highway ring gives you best access to everything also of course to see to the btc area which is here however if we now look at the citywide scale we with the new network we see here that we can strengthen new axes

If we do it carefully which link in a new way also on a large city-wide scale back to the center the other view is the local scale so here we are looking at a depth radius of around 500 meters so this is a pedestrian perspective here we care about that people

Need to find integrated patterns on a local scale and what we see here is the old course we see here ljubljana as a polycentric city right we see here the old medieval core we see here how well integrated on a local scale these streets are specifically around

The very center and we see also the incredible intelligence of bletchnik with his three bridges intuitively thinking already in terms of space syntax and we see here former peripheral village course and how they still kind of provide a certain density we also see here ptc of course not having a pedestrian

Road pattern with a pedestrian integration right we see here that you have to take a car to go to ptc we’ll because both coming from the center to the area and walking around in the area is just incredibly unattractive right it’s attractive for the car but unattractive for people

And what we then do with our new network carefully integrated both locally as well as citywide is to change that to really make btc part of the city so we are defining a new sub-center in btc taking this sub-center and moving it closer to the city part number one

And we’re making here a new stepping stone into the area where again we have the road density and the choice density of a well and well circulated and kind of prorose city fabric or here more precisely you see here the old center you see here

Btc in the old the old um kind of tiny centrality which we had and here with walking distances we have the city center we make here a new well-integrated stepping stone and then here a new center in btc so the idea is that you walk from btc then here it gets a

Bit boring but you you know you keep walking because it’s close enough and here it’s interesting again there is density and frequency so like you say hmm interesting you then continue walking again it gets a bit boring but then again you have a dense street pattern

The same is true also of course for urban block size so here we have the large industrial block size of btc which formerly was a customs free storage area in yugoslavian times and we have here the block sizes of a city which is much better integrated and the core

Urbanistic tool we do this with is what we call the armature an armature which brings us from a new kolinska park to a new square to a bulwark which we’re making to a new park which we are proposing to a boulevard and then here we make a link

Uh where we need to cut through private land to a new plaza which we are proposing an esplanade and so on and so on and the idea is with this of course we changed the perception of btc from a car based mental map of the customers to an urban based mental map

Where you could imagine that you not only come by car but also by streetcar by triumph for example by bus or of course very much also by bike and this is important because what we see here is the traffic density which we are predicting based on the new functions

Which we are putting in the area and we see on the left hand side how way too much much traffic car based traffic which would be generated by a linear network only with this main artery here smartinska street right so this is the amount of car lanes

Which we would need in order to solve the problem which we are generating ourselves with this urban development and here if we are adding a clever tram system as tram system by the way which also uh does not so with this tram line does not cross this complicated node here

And it’s a tram system which and the bus system a public transport system in general which is a network not only an individual line with that we can substantially reduce the demand on this main artery and can actually work with the existing street profile which we have without expropriating

Neighbors and landowners next to the street because of this of course this street would need to be gigantic in this way in a well-integrated road network and public transport network we can deal with it right so there are two messages on the one hand the value

Of a street network which is not only based on axial lines but is based on a more network based kind of thing point number one point number two is the importance of public transport to link to these new urban and well-integrated nodes which we are making

This then is the bird’s eye view so again you see here this sequence of spaces which were generating a park an entrance line a square here this kind of perimeter block urbanism which we take from the center city city center and pull it out to here this is an existing

Vertical housing then we have here an important point where our main road then bifurcates and links here into a kind of a really nice portion of walking with a new park we link here into the central square cutting through private land here and are then able to generate the opportunities

The landlords and investors wanted from us or in a bit more detail it could look like this and again these are fairly early renderings which give you an impression of this new link from btc along the park to the old center of the city now there’s a second important

Issue i want to talk about we already learned that there is a difference between an integration depth for cars where energy and distance is not such a big deal right where you see the long country roads and you see motor highways appearing in red a difference to

People who are walking and again people get tired um and therefore road networks which are based on pedestrian systems need to be looked at with a shorter radius so a kind of a smaller depth and you can look at that even a bit more abstractly in a sense that for some reason

Um we people tend to spend around one hour per day on transport in general because after after one hour they don’t feel like it anymore right so they spend that they use they tend to spend half an hour in one direction half an hour in another direction so you are willing to walk

To a place of work for half an hour in one direction and for half an hour in the other direction i mean statistically speaking right that also means if we now start developing transport technologies which are more powerful then of course the distance we can we can travel in this one hour changes

And what is interesting is that cities throughout history tend to have a radius of around 30 minutes whether this is a pedestrian-based city of the middle ages up to around 18 15. whether this is the city of the grinder side with the horse tramways and buses whether it’s the cities of the 1900s

With electric trams or the cities of the subways or the cities of the cars cities tend to have a diameter of around one hour respectively a radius of around 30 minutes and when you look at for example old greek villages they always have a certain size they tend not to grow

Beyond a certain size so cities in all cultures and throughout history tend to be one hour in diameter irrespective whether this hour is spent on foot by carriage by tram by metro train or speed train even this one hour diameter is based on a consistent human daily time budget which

Can be found in date from different cultures and times and in term seems to be defined by human physiology you get tired you get hungry you you get bored right and that means with increasing speed of the mode of transport the potential size of the city

Its catchment area so to speak or its commuter footprint grows therefore infrastructure defines urban form or form follows infrastructure it also means that roads induce traffic as soon as people move more freely for example with a really well-built new car road then in cities which are attractive at least

These roads inevitably tend to be full of traffic because people just consume more transport right they don’t just move more easily they consume more transport and that also means roads in attractive cities inevitably have traffic jams you can build bigger and bigger and bigger roads it just means that people travel more

I can show you this in a bit more detail in a second um what you see here this in this globe is basically a next case study i quickly want to show you this is work which we have done for volkswagen wagon over many years from 2005 to 2016-18

Having to do with studying phenomena of mobility specifically of car mobility of course but what we were trying to show is that the car as a product is actually a really great invention so to speak with a lot of opportunities but but that automotive mobility as a system increasingly reached already

We all know that systemic limits can you see this star sky so to speak can you not uh katarina yes okay excellent so this is a kind of um An interactive research tool so to speak which we did to show people phenomena of mobility over eight topics from mobile space to fuel from market to masses to risks etc and what i want to show you quickly here in english is this issue of reachability so you have here

You know the uh efficiency of transport by car um compared to other uh means of transport so you sort of see in terms of energy spent right so you see here that a car with only one driver is even less efficient than you swimming right trains are in the middle somehow

And the most energy efficient on the very right here is basically you on a bicycle but what and then with this globe here we looked at different parameters for example here road density in particular nations and you see for example here how the car nation of

Germany is of course also one of the nations with the highest density of roads globally only beaten by very tiny city-states like bahrain or singapore right so this is really the origin of the car very evidently is in germany but more importantly what i want to show you is this series of graphics

Here you see here the same thing i said before you see here the statement form follows infrastructure very much visualized in terms of urban density so what you have here is a set of cities from hong kong to phoenix the people represent one million people each individual figure graphic

Figure here represents one million people so singapore has around three million three million people and you see with the coloring the urban densities of people per hectare you see hong kong both has a lot of people and is very dense phoenix on the other hand has not so many people

In the metropolitan region and is not tense right it has two million people with a very low density and a huge urban area it consumes and obviously the work commute here again this this time constant which we discussed earlier is is very similar so people tend to commute around one hour in

Hong kong and seoul it’s a bit is a bit larger Because these cities have such a high pull power so to speak but in general people tend to commute around one hour per day but they do this very differently in hong kong they use public transport so here the kilometers per year per person with public transport in hong kong is a

Lot higher than in phoenix inversely you have the percentage share of public transport of course is skewed towards public transport inversely proportional to the density so the lower the density the more car based is the system the higher the density the more transit based is the system this also means that people in

Low density urban areas of course own a lot more cars in hong kong a car is almost prohibitively complicated to own and the important argument here is not that the people in phoenix need a car in order to inhabit the city so therefore they own a lot of cars

The argument is actually the other way around sea phoenix is a city which has been urbanized and specifically suburbanized by a transport system which is car based and therefore was able to be low density hong kong is very much a city which had to be urbanized by a train

For historic reasons and space reasons but seoul and london of course are cities which have historically been urbanized much very much by train systems or in london very much with a mix of system and therefore have developed in a denser manner right form follows infrastructure car based urbanization suburbanization generates low-density urban areas

Train-based urbanization generates high-density urban environments and the issue right now of course is that when you sum up all of the money spent on transport so you take the road system the rail system the cars people having to buy and the fuel they have to buy and you add all of this up

Then transport in low density urban areas is consuming a higher percentage of the gross domestic of the gross regional product than in high density urban areas right so it is simply more expensive to run a low density city than it is to run a high-density city and as transport

Is not something you can export but it is simply cost of doing business in a city this of course means that low-density cities are less competitive than high-density cities because they spend more of what they produce on a product which they cannot export they spend it on pure internal friction and inefficiency

So this as a quick view into this project with which we did for volkswagen and it basically shows you that there are different urban models which basically have to do both with history and the time of urbanization and suburbanization so the historic period of urbanization suburbanization

But it also has very much to do with infrastructural choices and you see here when you Look at density of habit inhabitants per hectare so from 0 to 300 people per hectare on the x-axis versus fuel consumption in gigajoule per year then you on the y-axis then you see here low density cities with a high consumption of energy or an american urban model and you see

High density cities with low fuel consumption or the asian urban model right and in between you have the australian model and the european model and the european model is of course less extreme than the asian model because the european model is a mix of public transport cores with a ring of sprawl

Around them you can look at that even more precisely and make a cluster analysis of city types and which we did also volkswagen together with jeffrey kenworthy and you see then that there are obsolete different types of cities you have um hybrid cities so cities which have

Again the european cities so to speak which have public transport and car based components like paris london new york or also los angeles as we will see later or actually have seen last time with the street cars which which were decommissioned we have clearly car based cities like phoenix houston or riot riyad

We have transit cities so train based cities like tokyo seoul hong kong or singapore but we have also non-motorized cities like mambay which are just you know a series of villages compressed together into an urban area which has very little urban infrastructure for example mumbai you have power transit cities so peop

Cities which have tuk tuks or other small individual transport systems which however are not individually owned like daca or johannesburg and you have traffic saturated cities cities which basically don’t function well like bangkok cairo tehran or jakarta because they cannot deal anymore with the induced car traffic going into their city

And when you look at for example this transit city then you see here a graph you have already seen you see tokyo and how it has been developing very much along these railroad lines railroad lines which were privately invested in for example by these department store companies or railroad companies which built terminal

Department stores at the city center an amusement park on the other end of the line and developed the city along their lines which we will see a little piece of later again so this is one way of urban development again forum follows infrastructure but at the same time of course this is also

Then paralleled with the development of technology for example here car technology which is of course also something which acts on our city cities and which is of course attractive so what you have here on the very left is the origin of the cars and the motorbike you know very simple and then

From 1900 to around 1950 a kind of a functional differentiation where you had different car types and then from 1945 or 1950s on onward a kind of a consumer based or market-based differentiation where ever more precisely targeted car models were produced to excite and turn into purchasers ever more narrowly defined consumer segments

And what is interesting is of course that now urban mobility is really changing extremely rapidly it is of course also changing very much away from the car based and suburbia driven sprawling cities into cities which are more mobility chain based and you see here how these technologies change increasingly rapidly so from

The metro system which was adapted over time so number of cities which have a metro system to car sharing to bike sharing and to google transit apps right you see that in mobility transformation a lot is happening currently now this gives us a sort of an idea of how

Cd is developed again space syntax shows us how cd patterns develop we have seen how cd patterns are also linked to infrastructure and infrastructure is linked to the daily transport budget of people so that more powerful infrastructures generate bigger cities and more decentralized infrastructures for example a car-based infrastructure generates sprawling cities

And a more transit-based infrastructure generates dense cities organized as a pearl chain of train stations with high-density developments around them and we see how we saw how that links also to the development of technologies of transport and how these changes are speeding up currently in this rapid urbanization we are in

Now we go to the next scale we go to the scale beyond cities for a moment because of course cities are linked to other cities again by pieces of infrastructure here you see an ancient roman road in syria you really have to imagine that that is what these roads looked like in general

And i want to show you the work quickly of joe gouldy a historian currently working in the states who wrote a really interesting book called roads to power or how britain invents the infrastructure state um she writes how britain built the first nation connected by infrastructure

And how that went hand in hand with the libertarian revolution destroying a national economy and how technology caused strangers to stop speaking together in villages so you have to imagine that before this infrastructure revolution roads were much rather roots ways people traveled along a valley for example or or along a

River or across the pass and these roots were not perfectly made right these roots were growing over time changing over time and they were organized on the left in these mental maps which were simply linking one village to the next one in a way which people just followed

Because it was customary to do so on the right hand side you have a very different map you have a map with precise precise roads you have a map done by a state which knows how to draw maps so something has changed here and goldie describes it like this that

Transport and the state had not always belonged together in the ancient world the paved roads of government were an anomaly in a landscape traversed by footpaths the earliest long-distance trade routes extended across the borders of one of the earliest economic divides that of the eurasian steppes where pastoral nomads traded with

Farmers in the valleys below by the first millennium before christ these sporadic trade networks flowed into the silk roads that stretched from china to the mediterranean while it was informally organized but of course used by many people in the following centuries the paths of silk traders shifted with the tides of

Trade and the threat of war they connected with caravans of camels coming out of africa and sea routes charted by skilled navigators of the indian oceans over these routes were carried stories religions diseases and political systems it was the route not the road that carried commerce and religion and you have to imagine

That these early cities which we have seen last time were very much linked by roots so by informal path systems now roads were something else roads were a mechanism for government and a tool for the travels of soldiers but very rarely an artery for trade the ancient

Roads of persia and rome connected only destinations useful to administrators they carried soldiers and judges but rarely ox carts or pack horses the military roads built by ori henry iv in england or luis godores in france carried soldiers across isolated peaks but it too had little impact on the course of trade

That division so the government road and the merchant route collapsed beneath the infrastructure revolution in the 17th century city-states began organizing their collective wealth around the provision of canals the first government built corridors for carrying commodities rather than soldiers and by the 19th century infrastructure had taken the form of state-designed

Sewers and slum clearance projects tools of social as well as civil engineering so what you see here is basically roads which were built by the engineers of the military paid for by the bureaucrats of a centrally organized city-state so to speak around london claiming increasingly aggressively its hinterland

First local then up all the way to scotland and now not only for military uses like we have seen in rome and the roman very colonial system but also for markets specifically for urban markets right because these cities started to control not only the space within the city walls

But increasingly with better and better technologies so road building technologies but also organizational tools like the military or tools like money and bureaucracy they started to extend urban markets into the countryside so road building was the combination of military technological knowledge with administrative expertise and funding it

Led to a new form of state the infrastructure state and a new idea of statehood and politics so it meant that urban markets left the city claimed the countryside that by the way together with increasingly well organized carriage the horse carriage traffic with the introduction of the clock

Which allowed you to measure time in predictable ways over a larger territory this integrated market basically then reached and started to define national boundaries right where the influence of the city so to speak was stopped by the influence of other cities and you could argue that the territorially integrated

Nation state which we know today each is very much a consequence of this infrastructure state which joe goulding describes and in some ways when china talks about this road and belt initiative they do this in a very contemporary very in a very contemporary and of course very ambitious manner now

These trade routes of course increasingly perfected increasingly administered by bureaucracy by synchronized time by the establishment of time zones for example by territorial integration of course pulled cities in its wake cities stepped over the city walls because the territory became integrated it became safe it became protected by an increasingly mobile military

Traveling along these routes and by an increasingly integrated market enabled by this network so when cities expanding their commuter footprint along already existing trade routes and roads and connections they start to grow together to larger urban regions cities leaving their city walls were connecting together in increasing ways

And what this means for to understand what this means we need to quickly talk about johann heinrich von tunen he conceptualized a city as this kind of onion shape of centrality of density of economic economy and therefore also of cost and he argued that based on this cost

Difference from the center to the periphery there are also different productive activities developing with different economic backgrounds and a decreasing dependency on centrality with decreasing distance from the center so in the center you have the city with trade and so on then you have dairy farming you have wheat you have grazing

And at the very edge you have waste this is how he conceptualized the economy of a city simply based on proximity to the center independent of routes and roads while the chris styler in the 1930s took then this idea and expanded it and said well you know cities are linking to other

Cities through these routes and roads which we are now discussing and generate a hierarchy of cities of important cities with big marketplaces the less important cities and so on and so on so on in a network of cities which we can see also in space for example here almost in a perfect way

Straddling a countryside of course very much following network law so the link between two cities is not so interesting as soon as you link more cities together you have network effects and making this system become more and more powerful remember when we were talking in the first lecture about scaling effects

Where we have super exponential growth the argument here is that this growth does not happen only inside cities it also happens between cities where it is beneficial for cities to link up into larger city systems and that again makes them generate more surplus which then allows them again to link to more cities

And what we have seen before is the infrastructural networks which allows them to do that a person who conceptualized this linking up of cities into city systems is dennis boomer of the university of paris who is also one of the important complexity scientists looking at city systems

Doing this very much from an urbanistic point of view arguing that you know on the one hand cities have particular histories you know which we tell each other as historic narratives but they also have common dynamics so they tend to link up and generate opportunities and surplus and life in the city system Which bill hillier has shown us these individual notes described for example by fontunin linked up into the networks of cities described by chris dollar and that then gives these cities additional growth opportunities and that then generates the common dynamics which denis puma is describing you know from a micro scale to the

City scale to the urban networks on the macro scale but it’s always the same thing you know this fusion reactor which we have seen in oxford street at the very beginning territorialized by increasingly powerful infrastructures also starts to function on larger scales where these larger scales and the lower scales

Of course start then to interact in many different kinds of ways ending up with the super exponential growth which we have seen in the first lecture so she says scaling refers to a set of properties associated to a type of complex systems which exhibits nonlinear relations often formalized as power law

Power law means exponential power loss or the supra exponential growth which we have seen with ddsonet among attributes of their subsystems either in their spatial organization or during their temporal development so what i’m trying to show you is you could say that space is the machine with billia hillier not only for oxford

Street but also for this city system which denis puma is studying or when you talk about with bitton court asking do social organizations also display universal power law scaling for variables reflecting key structural and dynamical characteristics in what sense if any are small medium and large city scaled versions of one another thereby

Implying that they are manifestations of the same average idealized city and again in the course of these lectures we have seen elements of this idealized city and here in this slide by dermis puma both for europe and for india we see how these increasingly powerful technologies inside cities and those linking cities

Generate this urban growth of the last century and this urban growth of course is something incredibly tangible again we are in the lecture space so something happens in space when these cd grow for example turning the pearl river delta in 1979 to the pearl river delta of today respectively in 2003

This is what happens when technology and urbanization is applied to territory and of course these cities have power economic power they control hinterlands and markets and generate densities for example here looking at the perler delta and in a system like that you also have synergies between different kinds of cities who have

Different kinds of specializations conceptualized for example here by rem kolhas with his term cities of exacerbated difference so in the pearl river delta you not only have a city network you also have a city network of cities which complement each other with their capabilities and talents turning them into an even more powerful

Urban system so he says that the prolific delta is not a single city but a region inhabited by a cluster of very diverse cities such as hong kong shenzhen guangzhou and macau together they may represent a new model of the megalopolis in the sense that their coexistence their functioning their legitimacy is

Determined by the extreme mutual difference so as usual with ram call house take away the boasting claim of newness we know that similar things already happened in in mesopotamia five thousand years ago right but his argument still is valid that these cities cooperate in a way

As we have seen also in the medieval times shown very well by brodel showing for example the links between perugi amsterdam and so on and so on this is a graphic by us it shows you how this pearl river delta city is an unbelievably powerful production house globally

Where you see this immense amount of products being exported into the entire world and of course then fueled of course by millions of migrant workers at the top many of them undocumented coming into this urban system and generating that invaluable economic output whether this is good or bad uh leave to your judgment

And you see then also of course foreign direct investments divide arrows flowing back into the system and this you have several times over the globe now these city systems growing together into large urban regions we have seen this already last time always with core cities and this then of course being the

Economic powerhouses of the world now let’s look at this link between territory and urban networks a bit more precisely in the case study of a study of which i know well which is switzerland and switzerland as we have seen last time is interesting because it is

Sitting at the cross of the alpine rim here in white so topographically differentiated area at the center of europe but it’s also it’s the cross also however of the european urban system with northern italy at the bottom and germany up to all the way up to london um

And the netherlands and belgium at germany of course at top so it is at the cross section between the topographical differentiation of the alpine rim and the topological intensity of the urban system of europe east-west versus north-south and switzerland of course topographically is this landscape of hills in

۱۳۱۵ when the space federation was first starting up only in the core the early sways were able to control at this area other than that they were very much under the influence of the habsburgians and in the middle ages these road networks of course were very tangible again spanning from italy all

The way to germany via the mountain passes across the lakes and then going into the river rhine here and the early swiss federation you need to imagine as a pact between those areas which controlled the urban which which controlled the roots between the urban system of italy and germany via their passes so

They controlled the routes the center and those cities which controlled the nodes the early city-states of zurich basel at that time also milhouse and is packed between the roots and the nodes of this system is of course very much urban already from the very beginning and over time these

Notes so here this walled medieval city of zurich where the urban system the urban regime on inside of the wall was very different from the countryside from the rural regime outside of the walls which often was subservient to the city you know there were provinces of the city and this early system of

Urban city states and countryside which was basically subservient to the cities so property of the cities had then to be freed by napoleon you know which we have seen last time with his more egalitarian french ideals of liberty egality fraternity that then basically cracked open this city-state system and

In the viennese congress switzerland then got the boundaries it has today and became then the modern nation which we know now what you have to know is that until the 1850s switzerland was a poor country exporting mercenaries and settlers here you see poor people from switzerland on ellis island

Trying to find a new life on the new continent but in the 1900s industrialization happened and this territorial territorially integrated infrastructure state freed by napoleon given a boundary by the venice congress became really linked up and territorialized first privately with all of these private railroad projects and then increasingly also

With the nation state which we know today railroad links which traveled the hills and were accompanied of course by an electrification of the country with these infrastructure projects of the 1900s and that turned a city of walls which still needed to be protected from a countryside which was not always safe

And had an urban market and an urban culture very different from the surrounding landscape to a city which jumped over the walls over the walls eradicating the walls in an increasingly territorially integrated and safe national environment powered by increasingly powerful transport infrastructures the same thing happened in vienna with the ring ball etc

To the city we know to the nation which we know today and this nation where you still see its origins with the very very many small municipalities now of course integrated integrated into large functional urban regions this we want to now look at a bit more precisely as a current moment

So these are the large functional urban regions in zurich so you have in switzerland so you have the region of zurich you have basel you have burn you have the arc limanic with geneva and lausanne and in the sounds you have lugano tied together by infrastructure now of course integrated and very performative

In red railroad in orange the street system and in many ways these functional regions are a kind of our economic powerhouses all of them differentiated and the rest of the country is a kind of an alpine park where however again with these cities you might know like

Say moritz you have kind of global resorts which of course again in their own way are highly urbanized when we now dive into one of these functional urban regions into the metropolitan region of zurich then you see here again the medieval city in the center and the functional region very much infrastructuralized and

Urbanized beyond the boundaries of today which represents a commuter footprint which is of course a dynamic entity commuter footprint means that every magentas a dark magenta part in the middle means that more than 12.5 percent of people travel to zurich for their jobs and the more infrastructure you build

The bigger this dynamic region grows form follows infrastructure again and this region again is of course in contact with other regions both nationally as well as internationally and you can kind of define this region in different ways but very much here as a commuter region and we conceptualized this region as a

Kind of a mosaic of location where you have urban parts here with the bright colors you have green elements in these green colors and we argue that this is very much functioning almost like an ecology but in ecology very importantly where different types of scales are acting onto each other

Also the same way you have it here right water has a larger scale than this little stone with moss on it because nutrients animals and so on move more freely in this open area than they move here and you have also different opportunities in this differentiated environment opportunities for

Open areas for high trees on solid ground et cetera et cetera and in many ways this differentiated location mosaic this functional urban region around zurich is also differentiated in these almost ecological ways as this image here with the different scales acting on each other and these scales are on the left the

Scale of infrastructure which integrates this footprint in a technical way and also in terms of time again remember this transport time budget which we have seen of one hour so people can work in the center because all of these outlying cities here are linked to zurich in an

About and half an hour radius right so that’s the realm of infrastructure or or as we call it structure in general then we have the realm of these individual neighborhoods or as we call it the gestalt and we have the realm of form what architects normally misunderstand as

Urbanism and urban design because form of course is only one component of this complex system we’re looking at so the structure is organized by railroad by and by cars and this structure binds all of these old alamanic settlements in the topography in this differentiated topography of the alpine rim gather

Into this polycentric urban region of zurich with the zurich very much at the as the core this topography in itself generates location Factors and movement vectors as we have seen in these old medieval routes for example using the lake of zurich and the viva status a part of their root systems and the passes as links between valley chambers um but this and this these roots also of course then link this structure

Of the metro region of zurich to the larger scale to europe with stuttgart and munich to basel and burn or here over the gotard to italy now when we look more into the city then you have the same thing again you don’t need to understand this in

Detail this is a work we are right now doing for the traffic um system of zurich where we have the tram network the catchment area of the trend network with five minutes on foot in dark blue and five minutes on bike in light blue and we have urban density with these dots

And we have growth potential which we now need to align with this traffic system in red right so the same system or the same thinking of infrastructure and catchment areas generating urban potential you have on the large scale on the very large scale but also on the scale of an individual tram line

It’s always the same story if you then go to the gestalt layer so this layer which is organized around these original village settlements on the one hand in parts still being isolated villages for example here on the other hand these villages growing together into cities with neighborhoods and quarters then

You see here the original settlement structure you see here reserves of buildable area and traffic demand public transport magenta private transport in blue you see that the accessibility potential of the private transports of cars When you start look from the city and you move out gives you kind of an equal spread of access the public transport system however gives you these dots so it shows you that zurich is suburbanized very much by the train system so it’s more efficient for me

Living here for example when moving to the city to take the train right the accessibility potential of these blue nodes is much higher vis-a-vis the train vis-a-vis the city center and therefore based on this powerful train infrastructure we have a polycentric urban development not a sprawling development like you

Have seen earlier with phoenix and so on there’s also airport noise and interestingly enough a political pattern also emerges where in the city center you have left leaning voters around that you have liberal leaning voters and in black you have conservative leaning voters in the countryside this

By the way is a pattern you see all over the world it’s always the same and i will talk about that a tiny bit at the end of the lecture um all of these factors together gives us a capacity for change so the more magenta an area is the easier it can change

Itself the more dynamic it is the bluer the less dynamic uh you have in this particular area and the dark the gray scale so the it means that the darker a particular area is the less potential for change it has in terms of its identity so for example here this part of zurich

Is its historic core so even so it is well accessible you cannot put high rises there because you cannot change the identity so easily and finally you have the scale of form so what we see as people standing in a street for example or looking at a building or being in a park

And all of that together so the deep level of the structure the experiential level of the gestalt with all of its opportunities to change its dynamic something we experience as potential as life and the final layer of form which we read as embodied minds with our bodies our

Movements and our eyes and senses all of that put together gives you this differentiated territory or dislocation mosaic which makes zurich attractive and viable because it’s a good mix of potential and identity of green and urban substance and zooming in you see the integration of these different kinds of scales together

And this again then gives you as we have seen in the pearl river delta these um local areas each of which has again its unique talents reinforcing each other and cooperating with each other but also competing with each other in this competitive system and with its different location

Profiles now just as a quick aside something we will look at more later in the next lecture but of course this also has an economic component meaning central locations which are attractive are expensive so what you see here is the rental cost for a four-room apartment in 2016 and you see very exactly

That this urbanized course for example here zurich lausanne a bit also basel you see how exactly the synchronization of all of these opportunities through structure through gestalt and through form gives you of course an immense economic divergence and attractive centers tends to grow not so attractive all the areas tend to shrink

Countrysides but also rural towns which are not anymore connected so well to this urban globe this this global urban system what you see here is a map of europe where you see this difference in growth and potential playing itself out over an entire continent so red areas are growing blue areas are shrinking

And you see how urban opportunities are very much organized around attractive course of cities which are linked well together and you see that cities which are not or towns which are not in this link or even countrysides are shrinking and depopulating and this hurts this is painful and makes people angry

And this anger you see itself playing out in the electoral map of the united states as we speak in blue here you have the big urban centers supporting biden supporting inclusion globalization markets a liberal view of the world and in red in those towns which are not profiting from this planetary urbanization which

Feel left out which lack opportunities lack education and lack a narrative for the future they are revolting against this urban elite here in red and you see that in some areas despite all the problems trump has generated in the last four years people still were leaning more towards him so the red

Arrows leaning to the right rather than less the red arrow there the blue arrows leaning to the left towards biden right you see the consequence of this spatial system playing itself out in the daily lives and therefore in the voting pattern of people so these highly connected space and territory which we generated

Over the last 10 000 years seen here as a snapshot in space rather than a story in time has opportunities and dark sides um which we are now discussing in politics as we see in the election in the united states or in the strategies of china very consciously

Of course and very centrally controlled keeping these links intact as much as they can but what we can take with it all together and these links then are also playing themselves out between cities so here for example you have zurich and its friends so to speak right

Almost like a facebook chart and these friends quoting quote have to do with infrastructure connections but also with market connections so for example zurich has a link very much east west so to munich and to chicago to boston to beijing and geneva for example has a very different linkage pattern

It has a linkage pattern which is more north-south because it has all the international institutions so he has links to mumbasa it has links to paris etc munich again has a different kind of linkage system and this is data by peter j taylor you actually have seen this data already in these maps

Where these links then become more this is like more easily visualized so that the redder these cities are the more of these types of links they have looked at this global city system coherently and there’s also another story starting which we look at in another lecture the story of digitalization

Which in parts of course liberates us completely from the territory you have seen before in other parts however still follows the geographical clock you see here servers being active over time still following daily routines and of course the cables which link us all together now on zoom are still running over land

Or running through oceans right so there’s still a territorial component to this digital world but there is also part of this digital world which is completely virtualized where all of a sudden you have kind of cloud economies which are partially still geographic but where geography links together in entirely new and

Very very flexibly organizable and addressable ways so when you look at these twitter maps you see the coexistence of these two worlds you see the old topographies you see valley systems you see oceans you see country boundaries you see the infrastructural links and both in cities so for example in moscow here

And in paris but you see also these urban systems where cities start growing together so for example here in switzerland you see here germany you see holland belgium and england by the way the blue dots are twitter fee at our tweets um so very urban and the orange dots are flicker

Posts so where you also see the beauty of the alps represented by all of these photographs people took and you see the same thing also in london again london as we have seen a city which started as a medieval city was then organized by transit so the metro system of london

Therefore has these really strong notes but then also has portions around london which are more sprawling you see los angeles where you see here the old streetcar pattern with moments of high density and you see here the sprawling pattern much more equally distributed and here in a very beautiful way you see

The dense moments around the yamanote line in tokyo or here very nicely you see so that the the railroad ring around the center of tokyo and here very nicely you see these um railroad lines which were privately uh funded with with their pearl chains of local densities so

Even so tweets are of course part of the digital world they are still anchored in space and allow us to see the layering of the space i tried to describe to you from topography to topology to now the new layer of the digital and it is interesting that people still tweet

Where the density of people is highest it correlates very beautifully and what we can take from that all together is that even so infrastructure and the digital seems to flatten the planet we very much still live on a planet where we have immense moments of density in this urban cores developed over millennia

And where we now need to deal with the future proofing the better organization of this course on the one hand and in solving some of the economic political and in the ecological existential problems these gigantic peaks have created so this is the lecture and i’m happy to answer questions

Thank you so much marcus for showing us these different layers and these different scales and also i really like your approach when you are showing how to work across this scale because usually in our practice we need to switch between scales and um sometimes to look more deeply in some

Particular skills and particular information and data to get more insights and to understand what exactly happens in the area and uh also i would like you to maybe talk a little bit more about this uh mathematical let’s say prediction uh about space syntax because i know

That uh there are lots of debates around this uh so there are some uh people who really think that uh it’s very hard to predict uh the patterns so uh with the space syntax because um it actually doesn’t show the time uh so actually you have the space but uh you

Have no time so you don’t understand sometimes open hours and uh the life of this city so could you please celebrate a little bit on that point it’s a very good point i mean you know space syntax can only do so much for me space syntax has two important roles on

The one hand we use space syntax the same way we use force flow diagrams in structure and buildings you know how does gravity flow through the floor slabs and columns of a building and a good engineer can explain you that and in this type of engineering manner we use space syntax to predict

Integration to predict whether particular spaces are integrated enough and many times when you aware of these issues you have this in your blood you kind of know it already but space syntax is a good tool to visualize it in a way where it also becomes visible to clients and other people

Who maybe do not have the same professional awareness it is also something extremely intuitive as soon as you have explained it to people they understand that this kind of makes sense so it’s a good tool in conversations and since it’s evidence-based it has a certain weight the other thing

About space syntax is almost more philosophical again i’m interested in understanding cities as Complex systems and the magic of cities is that it generates interactions and transactions so it brings us together and when people come together and are stabilized in space and time things happen ideas are being generated trade is possible culture becomes thinkable and this social system has a space

In which it unfolds and some spaces do that better than others and space space syntax allows me to imagine that almost like the resonance pattern in a in a musical instrument you know i imagine a city as a as a resonance pattern and on oxford street a lot of this resonance is happening

Like a violin string moving and then of course you know there are things space syntax cannot do in fact there is no time associated to it but they’re new tools you know professor novikov whom you some of you probably know does start with habitatum and

We do that cbd with our big data spin off also in parts and however that’s simply an additional tool that doesn’t devalue space syntax is like handwriting is not being devalued by you riding on a computer it’s just a different tool with different abilities and again what i want to leave you with

Is both the concept that space brings us together some do it better than others and there’s an evidence-based way of analyzing disability and secondly i want to leave you with this image of this resonance pattern um where we as human beings interact and transact in an organized way and it is our

Role as urbanists and designers to make sure that this resonance is positive and not negative thank you so much other questions i know these lectures tend to be long and probably everybody’s a bit exhausted but also if you have ideas or you know fears or you know i think the interesting thing

Is in many ways when you look at urbanization in time you have these issues of inevitabilities inevitabilities right you have these dynamics which we not yet fully understand and control however when you look at cities as spaces it’s something incredibly pleasurable and enabling freeing and inspiring

You know and and i think this is what we should look for um you know the pleasure of existing in spaces and i think therefore also as architects and urbanists i think you need to make sure that you have very physical lives you know you need to intuitively understand um orientation movement

And so on when you deal with space and maybe this is a more hopeful ending than that of the last lecture i also have uh maybe not a question but a kind of observation uh considering the current pandemic situation so listening to your lecture today and thinking about all of these scales um

I’m thinking that uh do you have this feeling that the way of thinking uh right now is changing a little bit from this variety of skills to some of them because it seems to me that what i feel from my point of view but however my patterns uh might be different from

Other people but however um i feel this that i have a neighborhood skill thinking right now and when i’m like you know when i use the city right and the second scale is a car scale private car scale because right now there is a fear that public transport is not safe enough

So what do you think about that and uh do you see similar patterns or concerns i mean you know two answers first of all i mean the pandemic brings to stark visibility the fact that cities are places where people interact they have always been that you know the um the

Modern epidemic epidemiology basically started in london when jon snow a statistic statistician looked at the outbreaks of cholera and was able due to careful evidence-based working to trace this outbreak back to particular wells in london right so he was able to see a pandemic of that time

As being created in a very particular way at that moment still transmitted by by water wells very much and of course the pandemic today is is is the same thing with a virus of course which floats via the air as an aerosol right but but but it’s

It’s you know cities have always been built around the understanding that the proximity of people is necessary for culture and economy on the other hand it’s dangerous due to issues of disease and politics right so cities have been built for that since centuries and so we shouldn’t overrate the effect of the pandemic

We will be able to deal with it in many ways right however what you’re saying is extremely true that it changes the perception of the city because of course you tend now to use more local and more private paths than before and that brings me to the next point of resilience

A city which you have the choice of mass transport versus public versus private transport of the city scale versus the local scale and in both worlds you can live a life that functions socially economically and so on that is a resilient city right a city where all of a sudden

Because you don’t you cannot travel with mass transit anymore and you can only behave in particular ways that is a less resilient city because all of a sudden you you lose opportunities you know your your economic outlook completely changes and the ability to choose specifically also the ability to exist

In a more local scale this is something which we will talk about in the last three lectures is something which we absolutely have to look for in the cities of the future so i think yes i think the perception changes no i don’t think this change will last forever

But yes it is great that we are aware that this that this choice is necessary and contributes to resilience thank you so much so maybe someone else got any ideas or concerns i think we are we are all trying to understand all of the complexity you have showed to us so

But i think the the important thing is that you know it’s a lot of stuff um it’s a lot of information but in the end it’s about two vectors right now it’s a vector in time and it’s a vector in space and you just need to have an intuitive understanding of both

Right now and secondly you need to know that along both of these vectors things are knowable if you’re looking for that knowledge right i think that’s the important message of these lectures you cannot absorb everything i’m telling you right now but you you need to have a mental map

With these vectors a third one will come in the next lecture and you need to know that things are knowable and evidence-based thinking aided by good intuition and taste is doable right that’s the most important message of what i’m trying to get across because as soon as you have a mental map

And as soon as you know that things are knowable maybe not all solvable but they’re knowable then you’re enabled then you’re free right then you can make your own choices and kind of and can find your own ways and i think that’s a a key ability to have

In the future where maybe it’s not always so easy to separate fact from fake news

ID: -v3M4WO4O-s
Time: 1638791584
Date: 2021-12-06 15:23:04
Duration: 02:06:10


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