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  پرینتخانه » فيلم تاریخ انتشار : 25 جولای 2012 - 1:32 | 24 بازدید | ارسال توسط :

فيلم: مهاجرت به قلمرو جدید حومه شهر و واکنش های دولت محلی

Title:مهاجرت به قلمرو جدید حومه شهر و واکنش های دولت محلی ۱۷-۰۲-۲۰۱۲ ارائه دهنده: برنادت هانلون این وب‌کست فقط برای مشاهده در دسترس است، برای اعتبارات AICP CM قابل استفاده نیست. حومه ها دروازه های مهاجر جدید ایالات متحده هستند این مقاله به بررسی میزان مهاجرت اخیر در حومه مناطق بزرگ شهری می پردازد. این […]

Title:مهاجرت به قلمرو جدید حومه شهر و واکنش های دولت محلی

۱۷-۰۲-۲۰۱۲ ارائه دهنده: برنادت هانلون این وب‌کست فقط برای مشاهده در دسترس است، برای اعتبارات AICP CM قابل استفاده نیست. حومه ها دروازه های مهاجر جدید ایالات متحده هستند این مقاله به بررسی میزان مهاجرت اخیر در حومه مناطق بزرگ شهری می پردازد. این مقاله با تمرکز بر منطقه واشنگتن دی سی، سیاست ها و واکنش های برنامه ریزی ایالت ها و حوزه های قضایی محلی به مهاجرت اخیر را بررسی می کند و واکنش های متنوع بسته به مقیاس دولت را تشخیص می دهد. میزان بسیج و حضور مهاجران؛ و اقناع سیاسی بازیگران سیاست و ساکنان محلی. پیامدهای برنامه ریزی و سیاست گذاری مورد بحث قرار می گیرد.

قسمتي از متن فيلم: To continue providing benefits to immigrants so this this starts to kind of put increasing pressure and sense on states as well as local governments to deal with the issue of um immigration and whether or not to provide benefits for them so uh this is kind of in a sense been

Led to so in some respects as kind of a devolution or these what the many geographers are kind of um calling a kind of descaling of immigration policy where the federal government kind of um uh it puts the sort of the social costs of immigration in a

Sense on to local and state governments and in many in many ways some of the local and today policies that have come out that come about our kind of reaction to that as well as the increasing numbers of undocumented immigrants into the united states so um in thinking about the state level

Policies i’m sure people have heard uh bits and pieces around um the laws that have been taken taken place in arizona as well as in alabama more recently these laws have uh created an awful lot of controversy um and actually in many respects um there is still a sort of

Creating a conflict between the sort of federal and state level and who who controls uh the immigration policy in a sense and who makes decisions over who should come who should be able to enter uh the country and so the arizona’s act um essentially makes it a state misdemeanor crime for any um

Alien i suppose in into the in arizona who’s not carrying the required documents so it’s state law enforcement officers can actually stop people and then determine their immigration status and if they can if they have to do this during a kind of lawful stop detention or an arrest

When there’s any kind of reasonable suspicion that this individual might be a undocumented immigrant and so um this has sort of led to some uh in a sense a strong kind of crackdown on on uh on undocumented immigrants into arizona and the interesting thing i think that’s

Going to probably happen um at the supreme court level is um whether or not arizona is law is unconstitutional um and there is um this notion of of federal the federal government having what they call plenary power over immigration and so they’re really the ones who can decide um who could you know

Who they control the border and make decisions about who comes in and out of the country and so um this is sort of the state overstepping its its boundaries in a sense is what the what the state the supreme court is probably going to make decisions on well what these laws

Both in alabama and in arizona um demonstrate is that this is not something that’s just happening in those states is actually um a number of states that have been putting forward similar kinds of legislation or resolutions um and so the national conference of state legislators have um looked and have have looked into

The extent of these laws and have found that this bad um i’m trying to read my screen here it is over 350 of these resolutions have been passed since 2010 with about 1400 of them introduced in almost all of the 50 states and so the states are really um concerned about

Immigration and getting involved in immigration policy in ways that they didn’t do so before so when it comes to the local level um there’s really no central database of of local policies and we don’t really know exactly the extent of them necessarily although the federation for american immigration reform

Have uh have a database um that they’ve kept but uh the um probably the one that i’ve seen the most recent attempt to measure the extent of these local immigration policies was an article by kyle walker and helga littner in the urban geography where they found that there was about 369

Local governments that had proposed or implemented some sort of immigration policies as of february 2009 um of the 200 they found that 281 of these local governments actually passed ordinances and some of them were sort of more pro uh immigration policies and some of them more anti-immigration policies as um

Sort of putting that in quotation marks to some extent but the pro uh a pro policy would be something where you may have heard of the term sanctuary cities and so there are a number of um local governments that have actually said they will not um

Allow any uh resources to be used at the local level to enforce any federal immigration laws so public servants such as police or any municipal employees will not ask immigration status of anyone that they come in contact with in their jobs and so this uh this is the sort of

Example of a kind of pro policy or um by some of the local governments and then there are a number of ways that these local governments have implemented sort of much more of a kind of restrictive immigration policy and so probably one of the first ones

Out of the box with this was san bernardino california which they had a ballot initiative in 2006 where they wanted to find landlords who had rented any housing to unauthorized immigrants undocumented immigrants they also wanted to make their city english only and then they were also interested in regulating the hiring of

Day laborers within the city but this ballot initiative actually failed to gain enough signatures to be put to a vote so that didn’t really necessarily go anywhere but probably the one that’s been most talked about are in a sense um also copied in in many ways was the hate the

The legislation that came out of hazelton pennsylvania where the town council passed what they call an illegal immigration relief act in 2006. and this um created an awful lot of controversy but it was focused on um employers uh and focus mostly on getting employers to submit um uh documents uh

And verifying the work the work documents of um of of any immigrants they may have had in in in their jobs and then legal workers uh could also sue employers who may hire um unauthorized workers was one part of this act um this act created as i said a lot of

Controversy and in 2000 there was an um there was some human rights groups who basically um challenged the legality of of this act and in 2007 a federal judge struck down hazleton’s law as being unconstitutional and um killed that and then the u.s court of appeals actually upheld um

The ruling that it was unconstitutional in 2010 what many people have actually other local governments have sort of looked at the hazelton pennsylvania law and changed it and altered it slightly to in in many ways to try to prevent it from being from their laws being seen as unconstitutional but it’s been a

Very important kind of case at the local level and then another uh example of this was also in farmer’s branch in texas which is a sort of inner ring suburb of dallas and uh this was initiated and around the same time as the hazelton law at the 2006. and there

This law was also wanting to find landlords who may rent to undocumented immigrants and have local authorities screen undocumented immigrants who may be in police custody and try and get their immigration status and then also um they were interested in becoming having english as their official language of the city

Again this law was challenged by the american civil liberties union and other so human rights groups have challenged these types of laws and they’re still kind of wrestling with with this particular uh issue and whether it’s constitutional or not so again it kind of raises this notion of

Of what they call plenary power where is this is is immigration really a federal um if it’s a federal level uh area rather than kind of thinking of it as um where local governments can start to have these type of policies so um some kind of specific programs that i

Wanted to talk a little bit about as well that have been a sort of federal level um that will become important when i talk a little bit about washington dc uh is the um what they call the 287 g which is um part of the legislation that came out in

۱۹۹۶ it was added um to that to make an amendment to the immigration and nationality act and so this 2018 287 g program the u.s immigration and customs enforcement essentially what they call ice creates a memorandum of understanding with the state or local law enforcement and where they

They will train local police to perform immigration law enforcement functions um once they’re trained by the by certain ice officers and so i’m going to talk a little bit more about these these programs but um this was one of the kind of initiatives at the federal level that would become important um

At the local level as well bernadette i’m just going to pause you for just a moment your go to webinar toolbar if you look at the top of that there’s a little sidebar that sticks out that has a little orange arrow can you click that for me

Sure for some reason a portion of your toolbar is appearing on the slides and that’s taking care of it so thank you very much sure sorry about that um so yes so that’s the uh 20287g program which has been uh at the federal level so this is sort

Of an interaction here between the federal and the local law enforcement to monitor immigration and then another uh program that’s come about is uh is what they call the secure communities where the local police will actually check the fingerprints of an arrested individual um against a sort of immigration

Database that is controlled by the department of homeland security and with this particular program once that’s if if there is some sort of match within these this fingerprinting database the ice agents are the the the federal level agents are responsible for carrying out uh the actual immigration enforcement piece of that

And in some there’s been some with budgets changing that there may be a sort of more since a lot of local and state governments did not actually take up this offer of these 287 g program and um there’s now sort of a sense that there may be some switching over to the

Kind of more secure communities which these programs were always something that state or local governments could opt into um and uh are opt out of and so now there’s some question over whether or not that’s going to be the case anymore with the secure communities program um because some local

Police are not really interested in getting involved in immigration enforcement and i’ll talk a little bit about that when i talk about some of the issues within washington dc and then there is this uh e-verify uh program as well which is an online service that’s managed by homeland security and actually the social

Security administration as well which will allow an employer to verify somebody’s eligibility to work if they are an immigrant and states and local governments have passed laws to to mandate employers to get involved in this e-verify program and virginia has has a law related to this um which i’ll talk about why i’m

Why why i’m talking about virginia and maryland here is that these are the two states that are apart that are uh also where the um washington d.c region kind of falls so maryland is actually at the pro in the process of considering a bill um on this and whether or not to

Be part of this e-verify program so to kind of talk a little bit about dc so for those that may not know the washington dc area um there’s where what i’m going to be talking about are is the area that includes actually baltimore city as well as washing as

Well as the washington area more specifically this is the counties and this is actually the baltimore it’s the baltimore washington core based statistical area of core statistical area the latest geography from the census so this includes the various counties here as well as some smaller kind of municipalities

Um maryland is very is pretty much a very strong kind of county government structure and so it doesn’t have an awful lot of smaller uh municipalities and virginia has some of these uh which will be important uh areas that i’ll talk about um alexandria um manassas park and the

Masses these are kind of smaller uh incorporated areas within the larger counties um so this is essentially what the region that we’re i’m going to be looking at and talking a little bit about some of the policies so a little snapshot of the foreign-born population in washington dc so

The latest figures i have for this whole sort of uh larger kind of region that includes baltimore there’s about 1.4 million uh foreign-born uh 1.5 million let’s say in in in the dc area and that is about 17.4 percent of the total population and of these foreign-born populations about 38

Come from latin america and about another 36 from asia and what’s interesting i think about the foreign-born population in washington dc is that it’s it’s a very um this very well-educated uh um high earning kind of immigrants within the baltimore dc baltimore dc kind of area and then there’s also a sort of

Less uh educated and kind of poor population of immigrants as well and so um some of the latest figures there’s about 21 of immigrants are foreign born in this area um don’t have a high school diploma but at the same time about 21 or have a ba and

A 20 20 percent um have a great uh graduate education on top of that so and then you’ve got about a quarter of the foreign born population earning more than 75 000 a year so um and ten percent of the foreign born living in poverty so there’s a very kind of different

Mix of uh socio-economic status amongst immigrants in the washington dc area um this is some figures for the various counties within this whole region uh that have sort of changed over time and so um what what has will probably become important is some of these areas have

Seen a little bit of a drop um from 2000 to 2010 um of their immigrant population but what’s what i kind of want to point out is that there’s quite a lot the the some areas don’t have very many immigrants uh as part as a percentage of their population um

But some have quite a substantial number so montgomery county been the highest with almost 35 percent of the population foreign born in that county and then some of these counties have seen this sort of rapid increase um so for instance prince william um back in 1980 it had less than about four

Percent of the population was uh foreign born and that jumped to over 20 percent um by two by 2010 and so you’re seeing a kind of large increase in the number of immigrants um within some of these counties and so um this is going to become

Kind of important a little later when i talk about some of the policies uh but prince william county in particular is somewhere that i’m going to talk a little bit about and i just want to just give some numbers about um the change that has occurred there so

Between about 2000 and 2007 uh principles of williams population itself grew so it’s a sort of outer suburb of uh washington dc that’s seen a lot of growth uh that saw a lot of growth um in the last couple of decades and um it saw an increase of about 28

Percent of its population generally but two-thirds of this increase was made up of the foreign-born so the part of the growth is related to the increase in the foreign-born population um and in this county one of the fastest growing uh populations there is the hispanic population um and this population um has

A kind of relatively low um educational level than other foreign-born populations in the dc suburbs and a sort of limited english proficiency in comparison to other metropolitan area counties and in particular montgomery county has has sort of got a much more um well educated and sort of higher earning foreign-born population than prince

Williams county has had so this will become a little important uh when i talk about some of the policies um so the so that’s been some of the changes that have been happening in the suburbs of dc and so what i’m going to talk a bit about is some of the policies

That have been occurring there in the dc area and so i mentioned this 28 7g program and here this is a list of the of the different uh local jurisdictions that have um have joined this kind of program or so here the basically um in frederick county for instance uh the

Sheriff there is uh is is pretty gung-ho about uh immigration and uh he’s made it sort of one of his defining kind of features of his uh of his policing in frederick uh county and he um so basically what would happen here is uh his his police um

Department is working as a as a memo of understanding with the federal uh level uh immigration and customs enforcement uh police to um to provide them you know information if they do of of anyone whom they arrest or or suspect um maybe an illegal immigrant they will provide that information

To the uh federal authorities and so other jurisdictions that have this are is a smaller independent um incorporated area of herndon in virginia and then loudoun county as well and then two other smaller incorporated areas of manassas park and manassas both in virginia as well as prince william county

Virginia have joined this sort of program the federal level and then there’s been a number of ordinances that have been specifically related to policing and prince williams county which is probably uh received also an awful lot of media attention about its uh program its immigration policies there in 2007 they passed a

Legislation that required a police bar department to conduct immigration status checks and entered into this agreement with the federal level enforcement officers and according to their latest figures to date they have turned over more than four thousand people to homeland security as a result of this uh initiative and policing

Um again in 2008 that’s when frederick county uh to just do the same thing mcken entered into a similar kind of agreement and montgomery county is actually uh some controversy over this but has um opted for at into the security secure communities program which is one the one where you

Have the fingerprinting and you check fingerprinting against a kind of national database by homeland security and this has created a lot of controversy in montgomery county part of this part of the controversy amongst the various police departments is that they are not really wanting to get involved in immigration enforcement

Because they want to gain trust and um with the immigrant community and so they feel that this is sort of going to affect their relationship with their local immigrant communities so they’re actually an awful lot of these police sheriffs and so on except for in frederick county are not necessarily um

Too happy with the fact that they have to get involved in any kind of immigration enforcement in terms of employment there’s been a number of kind of high profile sort of employment rates that have been gotten into the newspaper a number of times particularly in anne arundel and baltimore counties um where

They have actually found and arrested a number of uh undocumented immigrants when they’ve gone in and done these raids and they they get very high profile kind of in the media and then there’s been a a number of uh controversial kind of issues around day laboring sites

And in particular in herndon virginia in 2005 the city decided to actually create a day a day a center um and try to create a space for day laborers who um were kind of hanging out on sort of a commercial kind of streetcar area to create a space for them to go to

Um rather than if be sort of loitering on the streets or and some in some cases people were saying it was like um you know there was unsanitary kind of conditions and so on as the as these day laborers were waiting for for someone to pick

Them up for uh jobs for the day um and so herndon passed uh tried to create one of these um these spaces for for these day laborers and uh it created an awful lot of controversy and actually the mayor um ended up kind of having to resign over

This issue and they changed it uh it changed this kind of policy in 2007. so there’s uh been a number of different controversies over day laboring sites and there are actually three of these sites in montgomery county um and in in one instance where um for the city of gaithersburg is an

Incorporated area within montgomery county um they didn’t want to have a day laboring site within their city and uh actually montgomery county overrode that and decided to use their own phones to do that to create the day laboring site bernadette can you go back to the map so

That people can see where you’re talking about these cases yeah sure um so um i don’t know i don’t know if i do you see a pointer do you see what i what i’m at i don’t know if you guys see it yes they can see the pointer okay

So this would be montgomery county and uh actually gaithersburg is not on here but uh gatesburg is is within this county and then some of the other areas this is prince william county which is uh sort of as sort of more of a outer suburb of the washington dc area um

I think i’ve mentioned also anne arundel county here and then baltimore county is having those kind of more employment rates but montgomery county is an area where you see some of these sites for day laboring and then the areas that have had this is sort of frederick county up here

Which is the area that i talked about having the sheriff who uh chuck jenkins who’s uh sort of made immigration enforcement one of his um important goals for his policing there so that’s sort of like a very fast growing county as well so it’s similar in some respects to prince william county

In in that it’s seen a lot of growth um in the last maybe decade or two actually frederick um and frederick city is one of what robert lang calls his boom birds we’re seeing dramatic kind of growth um is that making sense jennifer um so these are some of the areas

Hopefully that uh these are some of the areas that i’ve been talking about um so the so the day laboring sites um what’s been interesting is that there’s um you know they’ve been kind of fairly controversial um because of and in one case in particular um in an area within montgomery county it

Was a center that they had created for for day laborers and it was damaged by a fire uh within the first few months of when it was operated and it was it was actually ruled a uh arson and actually classified as a hate crime um by the county police and so

These areas have become um pretty kind of controversial kind of places in the area of housing so manassas is one of the incorporated areas within um i’ll go back and show you quickly where that is located sort of down here manassas is in prince williams county and uh manassas has

Is one area where they have imposed a kind of stricter definition of a family so as we can try to try to in a ways to try to restrict the sharing of resolutions by people who may not be um within the same kind of family structure and so

Um this was sort of aimed at the immigrant population within that community since many of these immigrants would uh be sharing their you know homes were quite sometimes a number of different families together um i mean this measure actually was rescinded and so they didn’t end up being able to enforce that

So um here are just picking some of these ordinances mostly related to policing employment and housing which have been really the big areas um within the washington dc region and so um there’s been some other people have done work on this to sort of figure out why is this happening and actually not

Just for the washington dc area but even in other places as well and what’s interesting i think about washington dc is that has some mix of of local policies so for instance montgomery county with the area that has the day laboring sites has been um somewhat more inclusionary um and so have places

Like tacoma park which i didn’t mention uh but that was a sanctuary city that’s declared itself as a sanctuary city so it it’s uh law enforcement or other kinds of municipal workers will not ask anyone their immigration status and so they’ve they’ve declared themselves that and so there are these sort of ideas

That you have a kind of mix of different policies and different reactions within the same region um and to come apart being kind of an example of an inclusionary and then prince william county with its law back in 2007 where it was really trying to enforce some immigration policies that

Were a bit more exclusionary or what you might call exclusionary and then what i think you have as well within the washington dc region because it falls in part of it falls into virginia and part of it falls into maryland you kind of have different uh state level policies that are impacting

Things so it’s at different scales and so um you know for example um in the case of maryland um governor o’malley back in 2008 he established a council for uh for new americans and he’s really um came up with a number of kind of this

Council kind of came up with a number of recommendations to actually make uh integration of immigrants better in a sense and creating some some state level recommendations for workforce development as well as citizenship um as well as helping immigrants get more governmental access and so uh you have

You know a mix in a sense of um what can be sometimes a maybe exclusionary policy uh at a local level but at the state level um you’re having a sort of more integrative policy and so it’s a mix of policies of different uh in different local jurisdictions as

Well as at different kind of scales some of the common characteristics and this is the case with the dc area but also a case that other people have found in doing more national studies is that um the common characteristics of places that have these anti-more anti-immigration policies a more exclusionary kind of policies

And in some cases they have large immigrant populations in in the case of washington d.c you see some of that although in some cases like frederick county for example doesn’t necessarily have a huge number of immigrants relative to some of the other counties and yet it has a kind of

Exclusionary more exclusionary kind of policies so what you’re seeing a lot of time is a sort of rapid increase in a very short time frame in the number of immigrants and this is certainly the case in prince william county where it was not really um traditionally didn’t get an awful lot of

Immigrants and then got a lot of immigrants very quickly and so that rapid increase has they haven’t really learned to kind of know exactly how to deal with some of this immigration and so you see a lot of anti-immigration policies coming from jurisdictions that have seen this rapid

Rise in a very short space of time what you also see is that in lots of cases there are more republican jurisdictions and there’s been someone some political scientists that have looked at this issue where they’ve done sort of more quantitative analysis where they have um identified uh local jurisdictions um

With anti and more exclusionary policies as being primarily kind of republican jurisdictions and then lots of times these immigration policies require a kind of policy entrepreneur as you might call it and sometimes they’re very interested in higher office and in particular in in the case of prince william county you have seen this

With the sponsor or the person who um was very involved in kind of bringing forth their 2007 law um who uh who was the county board chairman was corey stewart who has since kind of declared that he’s interested in going for lieutenant governor and corey stewart got an awful

Lot of media attention um he was on fox news he’s been on some of the larger kind of media channels talking about this uh prince william county law um and so he’s he’s sort of been a major kind of policy he’s sort of brought this policy to the

Forefront and actually someone who’s now kind of looking at higher office and then what’s also happened in in in in in the washington dc area in particular have been some sort of high-profile cases of crime and so um you’ve had a couple of cases where undocumented undocumented immigrant has

Committed a serious kind of crime and uh this has led to this need this feeling of cracking down on sort of undocumented immigrants and so um actually in prince william county more recently um there was a case of a uh pretty horrendous kind of crime of a by

An undocumented immigrant who had been notified the authorities at one point had been notified about him and uh was then released and then he ended up committing this this crime later and so um you know these high-profile cases tend to get some sort of reaction um at the

Local level and so montgomery county becoming part of the secure communities program has also seen some high-profile crime uh cases that have led to them thinking about doing something about the undocumented immigrants in their community so just to kind of conclude a little bit here um

To kind of understand a little bit about uh how these local policies come about in some ways you sort of have a uh kind of look more at the history of some of the social relations that have occurred in these local jurisdictions and so there’s someone that’s at george mason um uh hamilton

Bernstein who came out with his dissertation in 2011 where he was really looking at a couple of different jurisdictions and actually look compared compared to montgomery county prince william county as well as madrid actually in spain um and sort of in the case of montgomery county

It’s had a longer history and a sense of ethnic diversity than somewhere like prince william county and uh you know he he talks about the county executive charles gilchrist of montgomery county back in the 80s being very inclusionary of the immigrant community and creating a kind of inclusionary immigrant kind of policy uh

Paradigm in a sense for for the county and that prince william counties hasn’t really had that um and hasn’t had a kind of long history of diversity and they haven’t really had any kind of um they haven’t had to really deal with that and so um probably the climate back

In the 1980s when the county executive charles gilchrist was dealing with this ethnic diversity may be slightly different than what’s occurring today in terms of our discussions about undocumented immigrants being much more of a a bigger issue another thing that’s been interesting as far as some of these cases particularly um in

The washington dc area is that you have an awful lot of local activists who who are very influential in terms of how the policy debate is you know it is framed and so in the case of prince william county the blogger uh greg is a blogger that was really very important in

Rallying people um for this more exclusionary kind of policies that prince william county had in 2007 and then there’s a um another activist group within prince william county that’s been very important in terms of how these policies get passed and that’s a group called help save managers

And some people have looked at this too where you see some of the national uh organizations like the minutemen and others that get involved once they see some sort of controversy occurring around the policies and they start to make a larger kind of national organizations start to uh

Um become involved in at the local level as well um according to corey stewart and people in prince william county they said they say that um 5 000 immigrants have left prince william county since the middle of 2007 to the end of 2008 right after they felt like around the

Time of this their legislation passing and they said they have actually moved to other counties surrounding that and that’s kind of led corey stewart to kind of think about um he’s been advocating recently after having a state level bill um that’s similar to the arizona bill because um obviously

For him it’s it’s maybe uh solving the problem in prince william county but it’s creating more problems in neighboring counties of like fairfax and and other places and so he’s um he’s trying to push this at a kind of state level now and saying that the local policy might not be enough

Um and so i don’t know if this uh is necessarily true with some of the more recent data um because it looks like prince william county has seen an increase in its own immigrant population as well so i’m not sure if if this is the case where they’ve moved to other counties or

Not um and then as i said he’s looking for kind of higher office and so keeping this momentum around this issue is important to him i think one of the things that’s been interesting with uh how this whole immigration debate relates to suburbs is in some ways suburbs kind of embody a

Kind of a middle class america and a sort of middle class american dream in a sense um and there’s been a couple of uh different uh articles talking about this notion of a kind of suburban imaginary uh that immigrants really just don’t fit in to

That kind of image of the suburbs and so this is part of why you might see some more of a negative reaction to the immigrant population in certain areas um and the the the article that was uh in urban geography actually did a a regression analysis of all of these different policies

Um local policies in the united states that they found and did find that um suburbs were more likely to have exclusionary policies than than central cities and so um uh you know this idea that suburbs in some sense uh immigrants don’t really fit into that kind of image of the

Suburbs maybe part of that so um what i wanted to point out and i don’t know if i can actually show you guys this but um i could try to cut and paste it into my um into my web browser but it’s a is a an interesting documentary that was done

Around the prince williams county which is called 9500 liberty um jennifer i think i’m going to try to paste this in hopefully i’ll be able to play a little bit yeah you should be able to play a little bit of it but for many of our audience

Members because of the internet speed um it may become choppy or not fully visible but we can try it for a minute and see how it goes yeah okay it’s just a form it’s just a couple of minutes can you turn up the volume on your speakers yep oh okay so um

What i’m going to have you do bernadette because the audio isn’t really coming through is you can paste that copy that web address and then you can just post it into the chat box and on your go to webinar toolbar and just post that to everyone and then folks can

Look at that on their own but it looks like a great documentary that would be of interest to our audience okay am i still on the am i still there with you yes okay um and you can see my screen now yes okay great

Yeah i will uh i’ll post that in for the into the chat um let me see if i can do that right now okay people to take a look at that and is that your uh concluding remark are you ready for questions well yeah i was really i’m thinking that people might um

Yeah i mean you know open it up for questions and uh you know wanted to just kind of show how in many ways this this issue can get really quite heated and so that was that sort of piece um i was to show on youtube but

Um but yeah i’m ready for any questions that people might have okay so armando has the first question uh what lessons can other metropolitan areas draw from what is happening in the washington dc area um well i think in some respects if you look at montgomery county uh as a

As a kind of example of a of a county that’s managed to be in some ways inclusionary of its it’s working quite well with its uh immigrant population i think they were getting in on that early on so um as i mentioned before um charles gilchrist was really active in sort of

Trying to integrate immigrants early in the process right when there was when they knew there was kind of increasing diversity occurring but um you know it had not reached kind of really huge levels yet but trying to get in on that early to have some sort of integrative uh

Policies at the beginning i think is probably one way to think about this for for some of the local jurisdictions where they’re seeing a little bit of change but it’s not too dramatic yet okay and i see you just posted uh the youtube video but i will make sure everybody gets that all

Right um and then uh let’s see james says from your perspective has america become more or less inclusionary when comparing today’s immigration demographics to those from various periods in the past well yeah there’s been um i mean in the past there’s uh there’s been obviously some um

Ex you know attempts to exclude certain groups i think what’s unique or kind of different about what’s happening now is that probably because the federal government hasn’t really been able to deal with this issue of immigration and undocumented immigrants and hasn’t passed any kind of law to

Really try to figure out what to do about that it’s trickling down into these kind of local jurisdictions i mean these states and i think you’re getting sort of varied reactions and so um i think that’s something that’s unique uh to this period that wasn’t really necessarily as strong back in earlier periods

Um and so in that sense i think it’s um it’s creating what is sort of a very varied landscape in terms of immigration policy that’s probably not necessarily the way we want to go okay great and we actually have two folks that seem to be from the region

And a couple comments from them so john comments that one of the more common impacts we in prince williams county experienced over the past several years particularly between 2005 and 2010 has been residential overcrowding fairfax county created a task force the special team of police and code enforcement to address overcrowding

And when uh heard herndon’s i’m not sure if i’m saying that right herndon’s mayor left in office in 2007 over the day labor gathering center what policy oh i’m sorry uh that’s another question so i will come back to that one in just a minute the other comment was from trudy

She said in gaithersburg the site was denied by the city and montgomery county uh built a day labor site outside of the city limits so he just she just wanted to note that for your records that they built the labor account uh outside the city limits so that’s some great

Insights from some folks in the region so i started to ask the question from john so when herndon’s mayor left office over the day labor gathering center what policy did herndon change to um well in terms of i suppose it’s not just in general or is that in terms of the

Day laboring side i mean i’m not sure but basically they stuck with it it sort of went more um kind of exclusionary i suppose and and that that’s the new person who came in as mayor was really came in on this um in part for um

Not wanting the the day laboring site um in the city limits so i suppose they they became more exclusionary in that sense sure i’m not sure but our uh we can get a response back on the questions if we haven’t adequately answered that one so sue has asked whether or not you see

More exclusionary or inclusionary laws and ordinances that are adopted um oh you did i suppose nationally well what’s interesting is i mean it’s 374 of so of these um that’s according to um that the work that was done um by uh kyle walker and others that was uh

That 200 i think was 281 of these local governments had a uh created these policies and uh i believe from his figures about 87 of these governments had sort of more pro-immigration policies um probably in the form of like being um taking on the sanctuary city kind of

Model and then about 194 of these had a kind of more anti-immigration uh policies so um probably going a little bit more anti-immigration than than pro but i think uh in in some respects it’s not a huge amount of local governments if you consider how many there are

Across the united states so it’s not like everyone is jumping on this issue and creating policies around it so it’s not so it’s not like it’s a massive widespread issue but i think if there are going to be these local government policies they’re generally kind of a bit more on the anti-immigration side

Now we’ve gotten a couple of questions that are really focused on the politics of immigration so we’ll just spend a couple of minutes talking about some of those first tom wanted to know the specific source of the study that showed republicans or more anti-illegal immigration than democrats yeah um actually

I can post this if you guys want um i i’m so bad at pronouncing uh the name of the person who did this study so i’ll have to apologize for that um but he did his name is uh ram ramek rishnan um and wang it’s it’s a

It’s actually online and i could post that if people want to the chat is that yeah just go ahead and post it to the chat and we’ll be able to get that to you tom all right uh then there was a question about um let’s see uh about corey stewart’s

Political ambition and wondering whether or not there were other catalysts besides political ambition and the question was whether it seems like a push could have taken place after the 9 11 attack on washington d.c and whether or not that may have played into things yes i do think that the whole um

The issue of 9 11 has been really important and there’s actually a geographer who’s been looking at this issue a lot of matthew coleman about the effects of um 911 and on sort of feelings of security and dealing with immigration in particular um and that was one of the things that in

This documentary this 9 500 liberty documentary is that some of the people who are up there talking um some of the local residences of prince william county when they came to sort of talk about this issue some of them refer to 9 11 and refer to uh undocumented immigrants as kind of

Causing 911 and uh that being a major you know that being an important issue so yeah i would definitely think that that that that has affected what some of the local governments and how they’re reacting okay so how much of the resistance by suburban communities against immigrants coming into those communities is further

An expression of white flight that motivated many middle class whites to move to the suburbs in the first place so that’s a question from roberto um yeah i think uh you know that’s potentially uh could be true um you know again if i think of if we think

About when prince william county as being a kind of more outer suburban community um you know there is this sense that maybe people moved there for a certain um type of lifestyle but i i don’t know if anyone’s ever really looked at that issue in particular i’m not i couldn’t

Say that that’s why people were moving um to kind of for purposes of white flight i’m not and then having a reaction that way because because of that i’m not i don’t want to sort of speculate on that in a way okay so we’ll let you speculate on another topic

So okay so robert has asked the question about crime um and so crime’s a concern for everyone what’s your thought on utilizing ice fingerprint matching only for those arrested on charges that are serious such as assaults break-ins drug dealing etc this would avoid trumped-up charges such as non-functioning turn

Signals it might be a federal policy to avoid local overzealous enforcement yeah i think um some of the kind of issues a little bit with the secure secure communities program and the fingerprinting is like um you know i think that there is definitely uh in some respects that

There’s a preference for that over the the 208 7g program amongst the kind of police force it seems um at least that’s the case in montgomery county there’s a little bit more um a feeling that that’s not as severe as as you know having police themselves actually do um

The enforcement are asking those kind of questions that they can kind of do it through this database a little easier i think there’s some issues with the um maybe potentially the accuracy of some of these data and how um well this is kind of matching um you know so

Um but i definitely think there’s a bit more a feeling that this might be a little bit of a better type of program if you’re going to go down that path okay so bernadette i’m going to have you move the speaker a little bit closer to

You and then i’ve got a commentary from james and then a bunch of people have asked pretty much the same question so i think james’s commentary leads us into this question so he shares his experience in lewiston maine and he says that they’ve had a wave of immigration in the last 10 years

Primarily from africa and mainly from somalia they now account for more than 10 percent of the population while he’s generally proud of the way that his community has responded there are times where issues have arisen that reflect deep seated racism and classism that does not reflect well on our

Citizenry this includes a new mayor in lewiston elected with less than 10 of eligible voters whose slogan is enough is enough pertaining to both immigrants and welfare furthermore we have a tea party governor who won with only 38 percent of the votes who has tried to ram in anti-immigration legislation and has

Already eliminated many newcomers from accessing state-supported health care i believe the country as a whole needs to address such issues which include economic justice and equity we’re now becoming part of the welcoming america movement which offers some hope so have you seen any ideas that work and this

Kind of leads into a whole series of questions from others about what should the role of planners be in in immigration issues so maybe you can offer some thoughts um yeah i know that’s a lot to take again um well i you know it’s interesting because when um

The mayor uh and i’m actually trying to find this piece of paper um yeah when the when governor o’malley uh began this kind of uh maryland council for new americans if anyone’s interested they might want to um check it out online um there’s a report that this this

Maryland council for new americans uh came out with where they had a recommendation of different policies and practices that they could try to implement to kind of um integrate immigrants more into the into the civic and life of the of maryland um and so they came up with sort of

I don’t know if this is so much for local planners necessarily but um you know they had a couple of recommendations and i’ll just kind of talk about a car mention a couple of them and see if they’re things that planners can get involved in i’m not so

Sure but um one of them was related to this kind of uh you know workforce uh issue and you know standardizing and this sort of training and so on for for english language learning and uh increasing sort of coordination amongst the public private and the um non-profit sectors in terms of um

You know workforce development and so on for some of the um undocumented and are for some of the immigrants in their communities and then improving kind of licensing and and accreditation for people who are maybe trained and as foreign born professionals um i don’t know these things necessarily um

Are for planners as much as maybe potentially kind of non-profit or sort of state and public agencies who might be involved in some of those things um but i think it’s uh it’s you know i mean some of these things are um kind of challenging i think for for

Planners in some respects because you know especially in the case of like some of the housing and housing codes and some of the violations or you know potential kind of issues around housing with overcrowding and so on that some people have mentioned um you know and it’s it’s you know

It seems like there’s been some of these policies that have tried to and you know that have been seen as kind of anti-immigrant immigrants because of they’re trying to deal with some of those overcrowding issues but i think that to try to really work i suppose with the

Immigrant community in terms of some of their needs in the in in that respect like maybe around housing or um you know some of the workforce development or um you know sort of access to sort of governmental services or things like that i mean i’m not um

You know i’m not so sure about specific things that planets necessarily do but um it’s sort of maybe sort of outreaching and and and understanding more about what the immigrant community kind of needs i suppose um would be a beginning at least does that make sense or

Does anyone have any comments on that maybe jennifer you might have some comments about it hello hello i was talking to myself with mute on um for quite some time oh i’m sorry no it’s my fault i i had my mute on uh so there’s a bunch of conversation back

And uh forth with lots of questions um raising the issue of being what it means to be anti-immigration versus anti-illegal immigration and what does it mean to be inclusionary or exclusionary and so is enforcing immigration laws exclusionary and so how do we i think the broader question that

I would ask you is how as planners do we make sure that we’re enforcing laws that are in place but being supportive of immigrant communities how do we draw the line in some of those cases and where should we be focusing our energy well my comments on the whole issue of

Undocumented immigrants and i i really sort of see that as i i really do see that as a federal um issue and so i would personally feel that planners would probably be best leaving that to the federal government to figure out how to deal with an undocumented

Immigrant that would be my feeling um and rather than kind of having uh you know that sort of local enforcement of of of that issue i would sort of see it as more of a federal um area in terms of um you know that being the the entity that really deals with

Uh immigration enforcement in that sense um so uh so for me i think planners as far as whether somebody is undocumented or not probably should not really be an issue that’ll be my feeling okay um so there’s uh maria has a question i’m sorry marianne has a question about is

There a clear distinction between laws that affect refugees versus immigrants yeah i um i didn’t talk about uh the whole refugee side of things i’m not really honestly very familiar with a lot of the laws around refugees but i believe that things are very different as far as um

As far as refugee status go and how there’s lots of different kind of programming for refugees than there are for other immigrants so yeah i can’t say too much specifically about refugees unfortunately it’s not really something i’ve focused too much attention on but as far as i know there’s quite different programming uh

For refugees and there are for other immigrants okay so john from prince william county says that he feels like there should be a focus on community planning issues that are nonpartisan and that our job as a sustain community uh community quality of life across the board not proactively advocating for one

Group or another although we certainly have some others that have responded through the comments that they do think that we should be focusing on immigrant issues so i’ll just ask you a forward thinking question so patricia has asked in your opinion what will be the impact of immigration on suburban fringe and rural

Communities and what are the issues they might be thinking about yeah i think um you know um it’s hard to tell really in some respects what’s what’s going to be the outcome of some of this housing crisis and sort of overall recession and that um impacting some

Some of the more rural areas as far as jobs and so on um but i think with some of these i mean like in alabama for instance has been some you know worry about this new policy that they’ve come out with this new legislation in terms of how

It’s potentially going to affect them economically um you know because of their need for uh the immigrant population to do some of the work in in some of these rural areas so i think um you know as far as thinking about this in terms of suburbs and

Uh you know in some ways in the older suburban communities and even now within these kind of outer suburbs that may be potentially kind of losing population because of the housing crisis and then in the older suburbs losing population because of um sort of general kind of decline i think immigrants can actually

Uh certainly improve the local economy um you know one of the uh one of the things that baltimore city had um when when actually governor o’malley was then mayor of baltimore was a looking at immigrants as a way to improve the city and increase the population there because baltimore city has been

Was losing population you know basically every decade for since 1950s or so and so uh you know i think in a sense immigrants can can uh provide a sort of can can support the kind of local economies and so um you know if you have these anti these policies there’s a potential for

For um you know immigrants to kind of move somewhere else and that can really affect the the local economy i believe in a negative way we have uh i i’ll make this kind of the concluding set of comments here we have several people that have asked questions about

Crime so i’m just going to give them all to you at once and you can respond to whichever one you might like so donna’s asked is there data that supports the theory that immigrants commit more violent crime than the general population or is that just a perception

Then rush wonders how much of the concern over immigration in the washington dc area may be sparked by increased public awareness and media coverage of immigrant gang problems such as ms-13 and then robert says so if bank robbery is a federal crime and if a bank is

Being held up and a local police station is across the street and called by the bank they should refuse to get involved and leave it to the fbi office 50 miles away to respond since bank robbery is a federal issue so how is immigration different in your view uh local

Authorities should not be involved in enforcing federal law so i think those are all uh interesting questions and given the short time you have left you can stab whatever you’d like there yeah um like as far as i know there has been um there is really no data to support that

That illegal in undocumented immigrants or immigrants um commit more crimes than anybody else um so that’s uh i cannot actually find this study right now but there was something that i read recently to suggest that there is no real evidence that undocumented immigrants or any other immigrants commit more crime than anyone else

Um on the issue of a um um this i’m trying to remember jennifer the second question i think uh that you had not the bank robbery one but the other one before that i’m not sure oh about whether or not media reporting of uh criminal gang activity among immigrant communities may be impacting

Perception yeah i yes i do i do believe that that’s that’s the case and some of these kind of higher profile kind of crimes that have occurred as well have i think been in the media and affected the kind of discourse and um in particular when you sort of have

Uh somebody who who um you know maybe sort of uh wanting to kind of highlight that issue a lot um may sort of take that to a kind of higher level within the media and sort of use use some of those um stories to kind of promote a certain point of view

On the kind of uh issue of whether whether immigration should be you know since bank robbers it’s a kind of federal offense i think um you know there’s a certain point that the question and the person who asked that question has um uh i just

I suppose my own feeling on this is that it’s been very much a tradition in the united states to have the federal government sort of want to decide um border enforcement kind of issues and so um you know i think uh in my mind we might have just such a

Varied kind of response by so many different uh local governments or state governments all having various different opinions and uh how that kind of how that would really work in terms of unifying the the country on a kind of particular issue i think is more problematic

Well bernadette i want to thank you uh we have had a very lively set of questions that have been coming up and it’s clear that there are lots of different um perspectives on this issue both positive negative and and everywhere in between and it’s certainly a complicated issue that is challenging

For communities so i appreciate you bringing us some examples of how different communities have responded to recent immigration into their communities we will have a survey form that will pop up when you exit the webcast we do appreciate it when you fill out those forms we will have a number of upcoming

Webcasts that you’re welcome to sign up for and please feel free to do so i would like to say this is uh i appreciated this session one of the themes for our webcast series this year is on transitional communities and so i think this is an excellent example of

The types of issues that are facing communities as they transition so thank you all very much and we will look forward to the evaluations bernadette i’ll send you an email after the fact that includes the evaluation from today’s event so thank you very much for joining us thanks a lot jennifer and thanks

Everyone you

ID: FR65Ew0jtDo
Time: 1343163764
Date: 2012-07-25 01:32:44
Duration: 01:14:18


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