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  پرینتخانه » فيلم تاریخ انتشار : 28 ژوئن 2016 - 18:20 | 10 بازدید | ارسال توسط :

فيلم: محرومان در مناطق شهری و آنچه برای آنها به ارمغان می آورد – دیوید ساترثویت

Title:محرومان در مناطق شهری و آنچه برای آنها به ارمغان می آورد – دیوید ساترثویت ارائه توسط دیوید ساترثویت از IIED به عنوان بخشی از مجموعه سمینارهای گزارش منابع جهانی. قسمتي از متن فيلم: So the first half of the presentation is going to depress you but I hope the second half of the presentation […]

Title:محرومان در مناطق شهری و آنچه برای آنها به ارمغان می آورد – دیوید ساترثویت

ارائه توسط دیوید ساترثویت از IIED به عنوان بخشی از مجموعه سمینارهای گزارش منابع جهانی.

قسمتي از متن فيلم: So the first half of the presentation is going to depress you but I hope the second half of the presentation will inspire you because what I’m going to look at first is how much the young the unserved sorry how little the statistics on the unserved have any accuracy how

Actually the scale of people unserved in urban areas is much bigger than the official statistics but then in the second half I’m going to look at initiatives local government initiative civil society initiatives but managed to go to scale in terms of increasing the number of people who are

Roughly one in seven in the world of one in seven of the world’s population living in informal settlers like these this is a the Philippines in sibu a billion-plus urban dwellers most of them not a theory on official records official statistics they usually have both dressed they have those street

Names very difficult to incorporate them into surveys even into censuses just as a reminder of the speed of the urban transition I’ve nicked this from my old friend aroma revi this is Shanghai a view of shanghai a few decades ago and that’s the contemporary so in effect we

Are dealing with an extremely rugged transformation at least a rapid increase in the world’s urban population but if we go to the statistics that are widely used to report on poverty world right things he’s been getting much better this is a dramatic decrease in the world or from forty-two forty-three forty-four

Percent heading for under five percent served in the next five to ten to fifteen years ok I’m going to report some other figures these were for 2002 on the scale of urban poverty think of china in two thousand and to think of what proportion of china’s urban

Population would you think was poor in 2002 think of the hundred and fifty million migrants who were working in cities but who aren’t formally registered in cities think of the people that have been laid off in in what was an enormous program of laying off excess

Labor think of the people who had their welfare benefits cut dramatically in china that’s the percent of the urban population who were poor in 2002 so is the no urban poverty in china is the no urban poverty in east europe is the no urban poverty in central asia no urban

Poverty in the middle east no urban poverty in north africa and in latin america under ten percent I’m sorry but these are nonsense figures set a poverty line too low and no one’s poor so the question is why do governments set inappropriate poverty lines in part they will use the dollar a

Day per person per day poverty line because it’s convenient and because it’s been formally endorsed by many economists but if you actually look at the characteristics of urban areas many people have non-food needs that have to be paid for you have to pay for water you have to pay for access to toilets

You have to pay to get get your kids going to school you have to pay for transport to services to employment you have to pay for health care you have to pay for medicines and none of these are formally incorporated into the formulation of poverty lines housing is

Often rented it can take twenty to thirty to forty percent of a low-income households from income yet provision for housing costs in poverty lines is either non-existent or very inadequate and of course we can get high levels of poverty even in prosperous cities are just to mention a few Mumbai Bangalore many

Chinese cities but it’s hidden by the inappropriate poverty lines that are being used just to get a comparison this isn’t for urban this is for national this is the proportion of the national population that is poor according to the dollar a day poverty line how much the picture

Changes when you go to national definitions of poverty especially ones which make allowance for non-food needs one of the things that puzzles me is that we as experts when I go to India and I’m being paid for by some international agency my per diems reflect the cost of accommodation so if

I go to Mumbai I get five times the the per diem that I would if I went to a small town in utter pradesh so in a sense there’s a recognition in international agencies there’s huge variation in the cost of hotels and food and all the things that we use but

That’s not applied to poverty lines poverty lines will have the same poverty line applied to Mumbai as to a small town in utter pradesh as if the costs of food of non-food needs of rent of getting water getting sanitation getting health care keeping your kids at school

Was somehow the same if poverty lines really reflected the income needed to avoid deprivation most nation’s most lower middle-income nations would have forty to sixty percent of their population below the poverty line I want to look at three other sets of statistics than that enormously understate the the scale of who is underserved

Ok this is the percent of the urban population with drinking water sources from improved provision the wh 0 UNICEF definition for improved provision includes public standpipes protected Wells boreholes this suggests there’s no problem it’s on the basis of these statistics that it is claimed that the millennium development goals for water

Have actually been met in urban areas but that’s the promotion with water pipe to premises so if we were to say water pipe to premises is a good indication of whether someone has adequate water we ought to be using the blue lines and therefore a completely different set of statistics

This suggests that even in some of the poorest countries provision for water is is is is close to a hundred percent so this this is the proportion of the urban population that has access to improved drinking water sources so even guinea-bissau very close to one hundred percent yugandhar close to one hundred

Percent Myanmar close to one hundred percent Togo malawi change it to who has water pipe to premises and you get a completely different picture actually you more than double the proportion of the urban population considered in adequately served if you move from improved provision to water piped premises improved provisioning includes

A range of provision so it includes water piped premises standpipes public taps bore holes to wells protected or the protected shallow wells and rainwater harvesting and that’s your complete set so the blue is the proportion of the urban population with one of those eight possibilities the red

Is just the one with water piped premises this is a table that scares me this is the the countries that had a lower proportion of their own population served by water pipe to premises in in 2015 than in 1990 they gone backwards they’ve gone backwards not only have

They not increased the proportion with water pipe to premises they actually have less and some of the differences are dramatic you know twenty to thirty percent down the bottom there now this is a very different picture from the enthusiasm and the excitement of the Millennium Development Goals saying that

We’ve met the targets for provision for water and for sanitation remember that I’m only looking at the urban population this is the nation’s with the lowest proportion of their urban population with improved sanitation and it’s very low it’s below twenty percent even for countries like Ghana with a relatively

Successful economy but the definition here is very very wide so improved sanitation includes conventional flush toilets poor flush ventilated improve pit latrines pit latrines with slabs now what puzzles me is in most urban context a pit latrine with a slab isn’t going to work on the second story or the third

Story of a building the capacity to dig a pit latrine depends on the amount of space you’ve got on your plot and many in urban contexts you’ve got such tiny plots there’s no room for the pit latrine plot so if we were to say something like those with sanitation

That are linked to sewers or linked to septic tanks that proportion would go much much smaller because the statistics aren’t kept separately by wh 0 and UNICEF we don’t know by how much so in the end what we’re looking for is is is really a ladder a ladder by which

Slowly over time we improve provision for water and for sanitation and I hope you can see the writing is quite small but at the bottom you got the worst provision and that’s where you have the highest risk of transmission of fecal oral pathogens and as you go up the

Ladder so that risk declines not at the moment would were providing 10 the pointer isn’t going to work the moment we’re providing one cut off point for the joint monitoring program what we need is actually statistics on the proportion of the urban population that has these levels of provision these

Levels of access these levels of quality so we got a much more accurate and detailed picture of where the deficiencies in in water and sanitation actually are now I’m going to tell you the curious tale of two hundred million slums that disappeared from the United Nations register and the un-habitat

Defines a slum household as the level of overcrowding the quality of the building an access to improved water and improved sanitation not access to water piped premises access to improved water and they were released a report that 200 million people had moved out of slums in

Between 2000 and 2010 and it included 60 million in India now by coincidence I don’t usually move in these elevated circles but I was in delhi at a meeting with the minister of urban poverty and alleviation and so I asked her this is amazing the proportion of India’s

Population in living in slums has declined dramatically 60 million people have moved after slums in India where’s this happening and she said I haven’t got a clue so she called her permanent secretaries and said look please bring me the the evidence for this dramatic fall in in in slums and

They came back the next day and they said madam we have no idea where these figures come from what had happened is that un-habitat had changed the criteria by which a slum was defined and then brought into improved sanitation pit latrines with with slabs so the 200 million that disappeared from the slum

Population was merely as a result of the change in the definition of slums it was absolutely nothing to do with policies and practices in India and yet in all the official documentation even the official documentation we see today there is still that claim that there’s

Been a massive move out of slums I don’t think the statistical evidence is there to support it so what would poverty lies look like if we actually got them to reflect the costs that low-income groups face in their daily homes in getting to and from work so it takes account not only of

Their income or their consumption but the assets the housing conditions the infrastructure the services the safety net the rule of law and the policing and voice for accountability and electoral representation or to change that access to good quality affordable water sanitation drainage because in a sense there’s not much point in providing a

Better quality of provision if it’s beyond the means of the household to actually afford to pay for it Dinah and I would also add to one of the key aspects of poverty is is urban poor without the right to engage in how their own needs and and priorities are

Addressed so because Donna and I spent such a long time reading poverty with reduction strategy papers and long and detailed academic papers on the setting of poverty lines we decided that with the Asian Coalition for housing rights a group we work with very closely why not ask grassroots leaders to come and give

Their perspective on the setting of poverty lines and so the Asian Coalition for housing rights invited a group of grassroots leaders mainly women leaders from six Federation’s or associations of slum dwellers in different Asian Nations to come and talk about how would they set a poverty line and they behaved like true researchers

The they went back after initial meeting in Bangkok and and carefully went through 200 300 400 households and got them to write down their expenditures and then reported back on that and here you see the difference the dollar 1.25 a day poverty line is on the extreme left

And how much the poverty line in the Powell for extreme poverty and for poverty the the poverty line in Sri Lanka for extreme poverty and poverty for Philippines the same for Thailand the same how much the poverty lines different and we went and checked wherever we could that the costs they

They put were were accurate and they seemed every bit as accurate as any any professional researcher professional surveyor and we get some some interesting comments from some of these community leaders in our surveys we found nobody could live on a dollar twenty-five a day when we did the

Poverty survey we found no one was as poor as the World Bank’s definition of a dollar a day remember these are urban communities this isn’t covering rural impossible to live with this you would have to gather leftover food from rubbish piles in the street even a beggar needs more than a dollar

Twenty-five a day for urban areas in Cambodia and then Boone long who’s a very very tough 60 year old community leader who I’ve met on a number of occasions what is the reason for setting such a low minimum amount of money is it a punishment or a conspiracy of some

Kind against the poor so having thoroughly depressed you I want to talk about examples of where addressing the needs of the underserved or the unserved has been at scale at scale in it so it’s more than the small project I’m so used to going to informal settlements and you

Know you’ll find a toilet with two seats and on the side of it is got the name of six Internet agencies and you know what’s a toilet with two seats gonna do in somewhere like key barrier with two hundred thousand inhabitants where have we got the examples that would actually deliver

For all of Kibera or all of mumbai obviously many of the so-called success stories limit the use of subsidy or don’t use subsidies at all if you don’t need a subsidy there’s no limit on the scale to which you can go and I want to look at some local government led

Examples and then some civil society led examples one of the joys of working in Latin America the person that founded my research program Jorge Orta was an Argentinian and we have a sister institution in Buenos Aires iied américa latina what you’ve seen in national America and this is generalizing but I

Got enough examples to defend this is local democracy functioning properly and as local government functions properly so you see the provision for piped water for sewers for drains for garbage collection being extended to a higher and higher proportion of the population looking at censuses in some recent censuses in some Latin American

Countries you got cities where ninety-eight ninety-nine one hundred percent of the population have the basic infrastructure and services that we take for granted in in the north you there’s exceptions to this but upgrading of informal settlements is seen as as what any decent municipal authority does it’s actually improving the housing stock and

Delivering for the poorer groups in their jurisdiction most of these are functioning as conventional local democracies but very often with participate or budgeting added participate we budgeted is where each district of a city the residents can meet and set the priorities for public investments in their district participate we budget inducting of a

City government so everyone gets to know how much money is there who gets it and for what so participatory budgeting increases the power low-income communities to get the priorities right in their district but it also opens up the whole public finance for a much wider scrutiny and

Then you’ve got this new generation of Mayors in Latin America most of them from outside the the official parties medical doctors engineers academics coming in to office with a very strong commitment to local population and changing the way a mezz operate remember that in Latin America very few mayor’s

Were elected 25 30 years ago many Latin American nations as they return to democracy as they fought their way out of dictatorship change the constitution and the Constitution was often around accountable local governments and a decentralization of Finance so you’ve got these cities that I think have provided wonderful examples of what a

Representative local democracy does and should do around increasing the proportion of the population with their basic needs met Rosario is one of my favorite it’s the third largest city in Argentina it’s had two mares each with two successive terms of office and what they did Rosario was a city in decline

It’s right on the parallel river exports were weakening and what these two mares did Oh each with two terms is is really to take the city by the scruff of the neck make all the services more efficient protect against the floods that come constantly put in a decent

Health care system that anyone could do decentralize the administrative systems so that there was one stop shops closer to the population any each district of the city increased the amount of open space support urban agriculture in a huge range of issues tough with with private investment but very supportive

Of private investment these were this was a well-run city that new investment came to because it was a well-run City oddly enough I think its cities like these that are also laying the basis for climate change adaptation and ultimately mitigation because you can’t do climate change adaptation without a functioning city with a

Capacity to provide infrastructure and services to everyone via this is probably an example you’ve all heard of the a Ranga pilot project research and training institute this is an institute that is extremely badly named it is called the Rangi pilot project but it works in a Rangi and 25 other informal

Settlements in most other cities in Korean in in Pakistan it’s not a pilot has been going since 1980 and it sure ain’t a project it’s been a continuous process of support for low-income households to improve water and sanitation and schools and building quality and the first thing they did was

To see how on earth you know that that little photo on the left you could reproduce that in pretty much any any city in Africa Asia and much of Latin America where households waste water and quite possibly their toilet waste so simply dumped outside and go down in

Open drains and what this institution did was to show that you can actually install high quality sewers and storm drains for thirty dollars a household and what they refused to do is that on any Lane they wouldn’t start work until every household in that Lane had agreed

To the connection of that toilet so you didn’t have one or two not connecting to the toilets which then meant you still got fecal contamination and you got them to work out how on earth they were going to pay the 30 bucks for each household and because there was no subsidy

Involved although the technical assistance were subsidized this allowed this to go to a scale in informal settlements that you wouldn’t normally achieve over a hundred thousand households in a Rangi now have sanitation and drainage of some of the highest quality in Asia also two million people elsewhere in in in Pakistan

Reached with this again you’ve got this keep something low-cost make it something that people want and the funding and the expansion becomes much less problematic there’s all sorts of other stuff that the Occupy ‘let project research and Training Institute does which is worth reading about improving the quality of housing

Helping with water having this lovely idea that communities do small pipes and local government as big pipes the way they could go to scale in all their community sewers was that government then provided the trunk sewers into which the community sewers could feed same principle can be used in water the

Communities can do the water distribution within the community but they need a decent water mains to connect to and that’s far beyond their capacity to do alone so you’ve got this incredible innovation using people’s own resources with a supportive local government allowing you to achieve a

Scale that I think is pretty much unmap unmatched in civil society responses to sanitation the community organizations development institute in Tyler and Victoria knows this example well as its featuring I think in the New World Resources report there’s a long complicated story which I’m going to hopeless is simplify but

Basically it was a Thai government national organization that supported community driven processes and it supported them by making finance available to them that they could draw on as and when they needed and typically it would be a savings group formed by women in an informal settlement and they

Could get loans to allow them to negotiate to buy the land or to buy tenure of the land or to rent the land and then when their tenure had become established so all sorts of other things could happen so you know it imagine these are three different cities or

Three different city districts and these are the savings groups usually managed by women and the first thing that the community organizations Development Institute tried to do was to provide them with loans they could draw wrong but incredibly difficult to manage administratively how can a central government agency deal with thousands of

Requests for relatively small loans and the genius of Cody was it decentralized that so in any district the savings groups federated they came together and it was them that jointly managed the provision of funding to the savings groups for infrastructure provision making it possible for the central organization to enormously reduce it

Well the time it needed and for any network of grassroots savings groups it could draw on finance for different things savings housing enterprise welfare environment or others and in each instance they could draw on the local authority the local NGOs local universities some architects training institutions provided very valuable help

In terms of of site layouts and it’s funny in relation to the need in Thailand it hasn’t gone to scale but in relation to comparisons with other programs and other cities it is a very considerable scale it’s approved funds in 270 urban centres reaching 91,000 households well about half a million

People and it’s done it that when when one community sees the neighboring community doing this and drawing loans and transforming their homes and their lives so it acts as an example for them and so what happened with this is the communities that had innovated drew in all sorts of visiting communities and

They learn from each other and so the whole movement helped each other supported each other formed very strong and powerful networks most projects were in situ upgrading because that’s what the the inhabitants preferred where it proved impossible to negotiate the tenure of the of the land either renting

Or or purchasing it they tried land sharing so you would offer the landlord half the site back and you would move to the second part of the site as a way of getting provision if you couldn’t acquire the land then you look for other sites and of course you look for other

Sites close by and just one of many examples of before and after I’ve satin and had lunch very close to where that picture was taken it is amazing going to these communities if you go to Bangkok regularly you go to communities like that and you go back

Two years later and you can’t believe the transformation they’ve affected but my making everything so decentralized again it wasn’t constrained by a national government process that found difficulty managing the whole process another example is community-led sanitation in urban india this is in pune this is actually very close to the

Municipal headquarters which makes it very good further the women savings groups that manage it and so you’ve got toilets on the first and the second floor separate for men and for women and then a room where the caretaker lives so there’s a constant caretaker to keep the

Toilets clean and then a meeting room for the whole community and I suppose we got to look at this with one example of this is the perseverance that the women who have formed savings groups who then were part of a bigger Federation called Mahela Milan they were looking to

Innovate on toilets because the public toilets that the government provided didn’t work particularly well all there was no public toilets for instance the women pavement dwellers and Eric or by Cola had no toilets they could access so they first of all they lobbied government to provide toilets and when

That didn’t work they thought well maybe we can do it ourselves and the first community-led toilet block was built in 1992 and because it was designed and managed by the women that were actually using the toilet so they came to change things it sounds so simple but the thing

That drove women crazy is that men pushed them out the queue and kids got pushed to the back of the line so easy you have separate queues for men and for women you take a bucket with you into the toilet for washing so you make doors

That hinge both ways just to make it slightly easier you have a function room now a function room is rented out for weddings for parties now if the toilet isn’t well maintained the function room is going to be too smelly to rent out so again it was pressure a clever way of putting

Pressure to keep the toilets clean one of the great difficulties in community or public toilets is that it costs one rupee or two rupees per use now that doesn’t sound very much but if you have a family of five each using one or two rupees for five times a day over a month

It builds up to a very considerable expense so they did monthly passes for households passers-by were charged one or two rupees per use but the community that relied on it were charged much less over a thousand toilet blocks have been built close to a million users again a civil society initiative it hasn’t

Eliminated the problem in Mumbai or it or in urban India but it’s demonstrated a capacity to go to a scale that’s so much bigger than most innovations one of the things that I think Don and I enjoy most about our work is working with Federation’s of slum dwellers

Federation’s of shack dwellers these are Federation’s formed with women savings group at their Foundation and the women savings groups federer age and as they federate so they can begin to put pressure on government for larger scale solutions and they could if they were just individual savings groups and

Here’s just a meeting that I happen to attend of the women savings groups managers and the caretakers of toilets meeting to review what their achievement of the key changes for these Federation’s is that they want to work with local government they see that a conventional protest and demand mode

Which is the most common mode for most social movements wasn’t producing any results so what they did is turn that around and give government their capacity their organizational capacity to organize to manage and what you’ve seen for instance in the in the community toilets is a very good partnership between

Mumbai municipal corporation and the community led toilet providers just as a reminder that the savings is the foundation for all these 33 federations enumeration and mapping informal settlement don’t have maps informal settlements don’t have records informal settlements you don’t know how many people live there you haven’t got the

Map to show where you install infrastructure one of the great barriers to some and squatter upgrading is this lack of data so what the Federation’s have done for on an increasing scale is to do that formal survey that formal enumeration for government and so if I

Was to come to you and say we need toilets and an access road but I come to you with a map and with a custom example of how much it would cost it begins to change the nature of our relationship you’re not going to government making demands they can’t fulfill you’re going

To Governors support you doing stuff that they think is important so with the numeration xand mapping the changes especially in their relationship with local government the partnerships formed these the upgrading and of course the enormous number of opportunities this provides for women to become into leadership positions and for women only

Groups women savings groups to define priorities in over 600 cities there’s been this careful mapping and surveying almost all with GPS is the the survey happens when you go and you chat and you talk and you gather all the information and then you walk the boundaries of the settlement

With the inhabitants and as you go you click the GPS device so that when you get back to the office you can put all the all the data and link it to a digital map and the clever thing is that they’re doing every ward every informal settlement and they’re doing the whole

City so that if I come to you as a local politician who was only responsible for the ward I have all the data for the ward to negotiate with you but if I was coming to you as head of municipal corporation I’ve got the data for the whole Municipal Corporation too so you

Provide the data as the basis for negotiating with local government at whatever level is of most effective and these are just examples of the sort of maps that come out of that community enumeration and process this is epworth on the periphery of harare really a big breakthrough this is an enormous

Informal settlement the South Africa theam the the city of harare the city of bull away the cities of Zimbabwe have not looked kindly on the idea of squatter upgrading its seen as as being too inadequate it doesn’t meet services this enumeration was important for showing the local government that

Upgrading was possible getting that change in government attitudes is so much a part of being able to go go to scale for those that aren’t present included and this just gives you an idea of the some profiles in Harare and the careful coverage of each of the informal

Settlements and i can tell you anyone who is interested in in slums that the data sets that these produce are absolutely amazing in their detail now I I could I could waffle on for for at least two or three hours on other innovations that are gone to scale I’m

Just going to mention a few in informal settlements in Mumbai generally when women from the settlement go to report some some crime in the local police station the local police ignore them that not in my district you’re not in my street so the head of the National slum-dwellers Federation in India met

The Municipal Commissioner of Police and they agreed that they would work together the municipal commissioner said look I can’t give you any funding but i can give you my staff so what they did was very simple a an informal settlement that wanted police presence it just provided a very small office where two

Police will be assigned and everyone in the community knew their police person so they had that accountability and on the community side they had to form a committee seven women three men who did most of the policing and so suddenly you had informal settlements where there was a proper policing system serious crimes

Went through the police the small misdemeanors and the everyday what what jockin calls the the chicken stealing things got sorted out by the committee of seven women and three men LOL peru that was growing very rapidly and the mayor just looked at this and said oh let’s take that land that belonged to

The municipality let’s plot it in small plots let anyone who wants to live and build a house here give me sixty dollars which is the cost of doing the plotting and so ello grew without informal settlements there were land that was cheap enough and were located enough for

People not to need to build informal settlements Asian coalition of a community action is an amazing initiative giving small grants to grassroots organizations all over Asia to allow them to try something new to catalyze them and of course as you catalyzed eight or nine of these in any

City you join the communities that are catalyzed together and they then go to local government said look look what we are doing look what we can do look how far we can take the money why don’t you match it why don’t you work with us Namibia the Namibian homeless people’s

Federation worked with with with government just to reduce the minimum plot size and to allow incremental infrastructure and suddenly you brought the cost of a of a legal landed legal plot for housing with infrastructure within the price range of much more many more low-income groups the urban poor

Fund International has channeled 25 30 million dollars to all these Federation’s to allow them to try new things to upscale to do enumerations and then recent work on toilets and the African Federation’s isn’t so much about going to scale it’s about producing a model that can go to scale finding a

Model a toilet that works well even when the settlement has no sewers and that is affordable in a sense it’s where the Iraqi pilot project was in 1985 it it produced a model that was affordable it didn’t need a subsidy but then grew and grew and grew and grew hopefully the

Toilets that have been developed with the African Federation’s will do the same so what underlies these well clearly keeping the cost down allowing households to make choices do you want community toilets or shared toilets many would prefer to share a toilet with two other households next to them and that

Then brings down the cost of what they can afford obviously smaller lot sizes building upwards cheaper house designs more land on the market more scope for self build materials purchased in bulk innovations that you’ve learned from other Federation groups that have built homes that manage to cheapen the cost

And of course for for providing the organizational glue encourage and support household savings groups savings groups then provide the foundation for a federation but they proud of the foundation for accountability 20 women managing communal savings together become very savvy at how you produce the accountability and the transparency

That’s needed for trust you can’t run a savings group without trust but as you learn to manage savings you also then managed to learn to manage projects to be more ambitious and you bring that rigorous care to accounting for every last cent to that supportive and accountable local governments there’s

Over a hundred cities now where there’s a fun jointly managed between the Federation’s of slum dwellers and shack dwellers and the local government where decisions are made collectively there’s even the example in ello ello in Peru hello you know in the Philippine sorry ello is Peru yellow yellow in the

Philippines where the mayor invited the Philippines homeless people Federation to sit on the finance subcommittee and on the land use management subcommittee now that’s beginning to build an accountability to the unserved into the city structure what were amazed about is how far funding can go the Asian Coalition for

Community action putting in two thousand dollars three thousand dollars into innovations how far they’ve made that money go how much they’ve used that money to leverage money or resources from local government or from local businesses and how many then managed to turn it into a loan to repay because

They know that if they repaired it’s going to other low-income communities like themselves to catalyze development so my final slide one of the things that worries me is that you’ve got all these amazing innovations happening here a grassroots level and you have the funding up here and the channels by

Which this can go through all the processes to go to their make it very difficult it’s also very difficult for these to hold this accountable we’ve got financing structures that really are very badly served to supporting lots of small continuous local processes and I think this is one of the biggest

Challenges we’ve got we long we need to find ways of supporting pro-poor basic services as catalysts for new approaches and as catalysts for changing the relationship with local government we need long-term support for the urban poor groups to demonstrate their solutions to governments to have some patience with them not always to expect

Them to do miracles we need a new funding architecture we need funds located in countries in cities the grassroots organizations can apply to direct we need more fun money funneled through the Federation’s of the local NGOs that they work with so as one of my dreams is you know the total development

Assistance concessional development sessions is about a hundred and thirty billion dollars a year just one percent just one percent for grassroots organizations and their Federation’s and their social movements that’s what we need can you imagine what a billion 1.3 billion which is one percent 1.3 billion would do to drive all these local

Processes in the end it’s changing the two critical institutions that will deliver on the sustainable development goals that will deliver on the habitat agenda that will deliver on on climate change local civil society groups with strong representation of low-income groups and local governments it’s to supporting those two critical actors

That I think we need to turn our attention thank you for your attention you

ID: Uff29t-GGuM
Time: 1467121819
Date: 2016-06-28 18:20:19
Duration: 00:44:37


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