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فيلم: طبقه بندی عملکردی: آنقدر مهم است که هیچ کس نمی خواهد در مورد آن صحبت کند

Title:طبقه بندی عملکردی: آنقدر مهم است که هیچ کس نمی خواهد در مورد آن صحبت کند ۰۷/۲۶/۲۰۱۳ این وب‌کست فقط برای مشاهده در دسترس است. این برای اعتبارات AICP CM قابل اجرا نیست. قسمتي از متن فيلم: Odhh hello everyone good afternoon and welcome to today’s webcast my name is Christine Dorsey I’m the executive […]

Title:طبقه بندی عملکردی: آنقدر مهم است که هیچ کس نمی خواهد در مورد آن صحبت کند

۰۷/۲۶/۲۰۱۳ این وب‌کست فقط برای مشاهده در دسترس است. این برای اعتبارات AICP CM قابل اجرا نیست.

قسمتي از متن فيلم: Odhh hello everyone good afternoon and welcome to today’s webcast my name is Christine Dorsey I’m the executive director of APA Ohio and the vice chair of the New Urbanism division I will be the moderator for today’s webcast today Friday July 26 we will hear the presentation functional classification

So important that no one wants to talk about it this presentation will be given by Andy Bay know and Peter Norton for technical help oops sorry for technical help during this webcast type your questions in the chat box found in the webinar tool bar to the

Right of your screen or just call the 1-800 number that is shown for content questions related to the presentation type those in the question box also located in the webinar tool bar to the right of your screen and we will answer those at the end of the presentation during the question-and-answer session

On your screen is a list of the sponsoring chapters and divisions I would like to thank all of those participating sponsors for making these webcasts possible today’s webcast in particular is sponsored by the New Urbanism division for more information on this division and how to become a member

Visit planning org slash division slash New Urbanism or feel free to email me at cedar C @ DB heart comm and to learn more about all the divisions visit planning dot org slash divisions on your screen now is a list of upcoming webcasts to register for these webcasts

Visit Utah APA org slash webcasts and of course like us on Facebook planning webcast series is what you need to search to receive up-to-date information on the planning webcast series to log your cm credits for attending today’s webcast visit planning org slash cm select today’s date July 26th and then select

Today’s webcast functional classification and this webcast is available for 1.5 CM credits and we’re recording today’s webcast and it’ll be available on our youtube channel later today just search planning webcasts on YouTube and a PDF of the PowerPoint is available upon request and it looks like a bunch of people are having trouble

Seeing the screen let’s see can we get some a few people type in and tell me if they can see the screen I just refreshed ah there it goes okay I’m not sure what happened this is I apologize everyone this is my first time doing this I just

Clicked refresh I don’t know anything about computers um okay let’s guy here laughing let’s go ahead and present today’s speakers and begin this webcast presentation and like I said this is going to be available on YouTube and also as a PDF if requested so if you didn’t see any of these previous slides

And want the information you will be able to get it ok um and eBay no andis passion is helping people plan and design transportation systems that are appropriately scaled for active human living whether you walk ride a bike operate a rickshaw drive a car ride a

Bus or drive a truck safe and convenient mobility is important one of Andy’s primary goals in his work is that end users people can move around efficiently and safely regardless of their mode of travel he frequently speaks at regional and national forums connecting transportation infrastructure to livability and context sensitive solutions

Andy host the urbanism speakeasy podcast and contributes to several urbanism magazines and blogs he is a member of the Institute of Certified planners our second presenter is Peter Norton Peters book fighting traffic the dawn of the motor age in the American city contends that the motor age came to the city only

After tumultuous struggle between pedestrians parents auto clubs Street railways and other groups that competed over different ideas about what streets are for his article Street rivals jaywalking and the invention of the motor Age Street won the usher prize of the Society for the history of technology for the best scholarly work

Published during the preceding three years under the auspices of the Society I will now turn the presentation over to Andy and Peter so we can get started and hopefully it works all right thank you joining us today I’m assuming this is working fine I’ll go forward with that assumption unless someone steers me

Differently Peter and I are both fascinated by streets in the evolution of cities so of course we’re happy to have a chance to share some thoughts with you today we’ll make sure to watch the clock so we’ve got plenty of time for questions and let’s jump in here’s

An overview of where we’re headed first I’m going to touch on Wyatt planners and especially new Urbanists should care so much about Street classification Peter will then spend about a half hour a little more talking about the evolution of American streets including a very sudden and dramatic

Turn of events in the 20th century and then I’ll wrap up with a look at today’s American streets and Sharaf some ways to improve them we do need the warranty though we will be sharing unfashionable truths and the way I see it if everyone is comfortable with what we’re saying

Then we’re probably not pushing hard enough let me find apparently my slides don’t want to cooperate all right there we go functional class is a way that traffic engineers and road designers group streets according to the type of traffic that they serve and the degree of access that’s expected to adjacent land uses

Here’s a chart it elicits repeats the classification you’ve probably seen this before you’ll find it or something very similar in most road design manuals now as you move to the left there’s an expectation that vehicle mobility think speed is the most important and there will be very little

Access to properties and that makes sense if you picture driving on i-95 or i-10 any interstate near you now moving to the right it’s the opposite you expect to see a lot of driveways and intersections and vehicles probably won’t be driving as fast it’s basically a filing system think of each class type

As having its own drawer you open up the collector drawer and you find Main Street Broad Street Springfield Drive and so on it’s important to know that the streets classification is one of the first steps in a design project so if you’re studying a particular corridor you’re thinking about a road widening or

A road diet functional class will be on the table now usually it’s a process that only engineers are allowed to tinker with but really it’s a planning tool so as we go through this presentation keep in mind that as planners and Urbanists you should play an active role in the interpretation of

Your community streets our culture is full of institutional pressure to be like everyone else if conformity doesn’t happen naturally we’ll find ways to force it Albert Einstein said the problems we have created cannot be solved with the same thinking that created them and an agent of change has to be a nonconformist

That’s why the boy in this picture and Albert Einstein are so relevant to creating better streets if we were to produce a film about this topic it might be something like this for years now the Federal Highway Administration has been advocating flexible design standards and yet typical transportation engineering in

The US has remained very rigid we’ve lost the idea of engineering judgment engineers have been trained to follow guidebooks as if the guides were laws instead of guides they’ve been trained that their common sense shouldn’t get in the way of a sacred green book and as planners we’ve been trained not to

Question engineering Authority or to challenge basic assumptions of street design I’m suggesting we question everything that’s not to say that every design assumption is terrible but many of them are the group that controls the assumptions will probably get the result they want when you try to learn the origin story for a specific

Transportation design habits you will be amazed at what you find maybe some of you have already done this why are my local streets just as wide as the major arterials you ask well because we’ve always done this they might say that’s not scientific reasoning it’s folklore engineering so why do we get

Fired up about this well because now we’re suffering through unintended negative consequences the street that should be narrow and posted at 25 miles per hour in your community is a high speed barrier to livability the real world physical impacts of folklore engineering a contrary to the overall purpose of new urban planning here’s

Another film and I’m thinking about green lighting at just in case you think I’m exaggerating take a look at this picture this is how we connect land use and transportation in the US this street could be almost anywhere you probably have streets near this but like this

Near you here’s another one a local street that has nothing to do with livability or urban character three lanes in each direction turn lanes highway style lighting all based on possible development that hasn’t even happened yet we guess how many cars are gonna be on the road and then design it

Like a highway it wasn’t always like this our streets were not always desolate wasteland pedestrians weren’t always asked to wear headlights in a car as protection when approaching a street we can learn from our history thank you Andy I want to thank Andy for inviting me to this today because city

Planners are heroes of mine I admire the ones who are interested in coming up with more livable designs for people like me to live in I’d like to give you both a historians perspective and since I’m not a planner a sort of outsider’s perspective I think that can be

Enlightening to people who are on the inside so to speak and I want to take my inspiration to start from Galileo you might recognize these ink washes he did about 500 years ago I when Galileo first looked through a telescope he looked at the moon and found that it was not the

Way Aristotle had said it was everybody had assumed that the moon must be a perfect sphere the logic seemed flawless it’s in the heavens heavens is perfect a sphere is perfect but only if it’s perfectly smooth but Galileo looked again and I take inspiration from his willingness to look

Again he used a telescope I proposed to do the same thing to look again at functional classification only instead of a telescope I proposed to use history if we look at a classic engineering diagram of a black box we the diagram does not bother to explain what the

Process is in the black box that transforms an input into an output and in much of 20th and 21st century American transportation engineering the black box has been functional classification I propose to use history as well as an outsider’s perspective to open up the black box of functional

Classification and see if we can we examine and maybe rediscover what’s inside I think in in the highest level terms what we’re doing today or what Andy and I are doing today is asking does this make sense and it really depends on your perspective I mean to me

As an outsider this is a rather bizarre solution to a transportation problem from the point of view of functional classification it makes perfect sense in other words if we accept the assumptions behind this functional classification diagram then the results follow from them but I want to question the

Assumptions so this is a typical functional classification diagram a variation on the top type that Andy showed you a minute ago but as an outsider I think I have an advantage I can ask the stupid questions and insiders tend to overlook because they’re so deeply inside what they’re

Examining as an outsider I can ask questions like functional classification of what to me it’s very interesting that this is functional classification of roads and streets what if we ask questions like how do we get mobility or access by classifying vehicles we might say at the high end of mobility have

High-speed trains in a spectrum going all the way down to pedestrians is the optimum access mode so I wonder if a functional classification by mode rather than by Road might be a useful idea to consider this the kind of question an outsider can ask right functional classification for whom I wonder this

Too we look at pictures like this say well practically everybody’s in a car the answer seems to be functional classification for people in cars I think that means we may have to re-examine and maybe redraw this chart even as it’s applied today for example I wonder if we really mean mobility or

Just mobility for cars so you can see I’ve modified the diagram slightly already and do we really mean higher mobility or as Andy suggested just a minute or two ago maybe we really just mean speed because I don’t think it’s hard to imagine mobility even optimal mobility that isn’t necessarily very

Fast and it seems to me that the high end of the functional classification chart is really more about speed than about ability and in the end we it appears that we’re talking about the function in functional classification the function for roads and streets as optimizing speed and access for cars which is not

Exactly the same thing as optimum transportation planning this quotation from the 1972 highway needs report shows that speed minimum speed of 35 to 40 miles an hour is treated as a goal for all roads as if as if this is a given and I think this is something that can

Be questioned for example is this woman’s mobility really more a function of speed or as she’s just looking for a way to get across the street it leads me to ask high access for whom this is a road with significant number of driveways and yet this is high access

Perhaps from a motorists point of view but I’m not sure this woman would agree that she has high access I think you can see in these pictures that what is high mobility for some is impaired mobility for others what’s high access for some is impaired access for others take

Children for example I’m on Facebook recently I got a post on my newsfeed from somebody from my old neighborhood who is reminiscing about what was called the black path it was a path children they themselves children and teenagers people who couldn’t drive and they through their own sort of transportation

Planning and their own innovation innovated this path marked in red but called the black path the connected isolated points points designed for connection by car but not for connection by foot but children teenagers reinvented transportation planning in the 70s when this black path was charted

Out in my old hometown I think we need to re-examine the question what is mobility I already suggested that maybe what the advocates of the present functional classification to mean might have more to do with speed here we see a arterial urban arterial route austell Road in Marietta Georgia

This affords great mobility to drivers in the form of speed right so this is giving higher mobility or speed to a portion of the population but from a pedestrians point of view this is impaired mobility right this is the red X shows the point of the infamous fatality of four-year-old aj nelson in

۲۰۱۱ you some of you I’m sure have heard about this case where a woman with children not a car owner was trying to return home trying to get across a force explained highway to get to her home as a non motorist this is not only impaired mobility this is extremely dangerous

Mobility the functional classification was not serving AJ’s mother Raquel Nelson and the answer I think is implicit in the name of one of the best-known advocates of functional classification what’s now the American Association of State Highway and Transportation officials but as the logo indicates here was originally the American Association of State Highway

Officials and it’s still in practice overwhelmingly a road based Transportation Authority if we go back before a show and it’s version of functional classification we see streets like this one in Rochester in 1904 now according to the official story this is a street with no functional classification it’s would be regarded as

Chaotic by our standards today as suboptimal in every respect and there is an apparent or an appearance of chaos about it but I would suggest to you that in this picture we actually see functional classification not according to the standards of the prescribed functional classification diagram that

Andy and I showed you but rather according to different criteria we see very high acts by pedestrians I think you might say that this is functional classification not from a motorists point of view like the kind that we’re familiar with mostly but rather functional classification from a pedestrians point of view if they

Want mobility or speed they can go to the center of the street and take a streetcar if they want access they can go to the sidewalk and have access that way if they want something in between they can use the road space in between and incidentally I hope you’ve noticed

That if passengers taking streetcars must go to the center of the street there’s a suggestion there that pedestrians belong in streets and in the world of 19-4 they did they belong to everywhere in streets and even had priority in streets so I asked if we should reconsider is this really low

Mobility or is it a different kind of high mobility is it really just low speed with high mobility a category that can’t exist in the present functional classification scheme but perhaps it should if we really want to re-examine this as Andy invited us all to do here’s

Boston 19 4 and I ask the same questions of this is this an absence of functional classification or is it simply an unfamiliar to us now form of functional classification I will have sort of four points I’d like to convey to you functional classification was not

Invented by a show which was renamed a shto in 1973 and objective research cannot tell us definitively which functions are correct and which are incorrect these are decisions that citizens ultimately have to make in any free society and I think it’s up to experts to reopen debates in such a way

That non experts can enter in objective research can’t tell us which classifications to choose in a free society we presumably like citizens come up with these decisions perhaps guided by experts and history can open the black box of functional classification to disclose alternative classifications alternative functions an alternative categories within those

Classifications and history is going to be my main technique for doing this the fee tails are in my book fighting traffic but I’ll give you a sort of quicker look this way so I asked earlier does this make sense um in the functional classification that we’ve had

In this country for the last 50 years or so I think the answer must be yes it is the justification for this system but until the middle of the 20th century certainly before 1930 the answer to this question was an absolute no this was absurd from the point of view of the

Experts of as late as the 1920s when the prevailing traffic engineering wisdom was that you wanted to optimize the use of Street space by favoring the spatially efficient modes at least in cities so the answer is no this did not make sense that 20s although it’s really

In the twenties I think that you see this discussion start to change you can see that manifested in Radburn New Jersey’s town plan this is a town plan that almost looks like something out of the 70s or 80s or even today you recognize the sort of access type roads

This is a motor age town plan Radburn was sold as the town for the motor age there’s an important difference though there were pedestrian and bicycle paths that connected people such that they did not have to come up with the black path that I mentioned earlier on my Facebook

Post it’s in the 20s though that you do see a new definition a new proposal for how cities should be planned and the justification falls under many headings put them all together and they add up to the claim that it’s a motor age and in

The motor age we need new ways to move people around you see that manifested exquisitely here in 1929 this is New Jersey right across the Arthur Kill from Staten Island this is a motor Age intersection familiar to all of us but brand-new and this was opened up in 1929 how did this

Happen there’s multiple parts I’m going to just stress a couple of them one is there was money for this now in the 20s Road structures like this were expensive the there was a new revenue stream for these in the form of gasoline taxes originally steadfastly opposed by definitely the oil companies but also

The automobile industry in the auto clubs that changed in the 20s as automotive interest groups excluding oil companies saw a real opportunity to transform America to make it a motorized country to motorized its cities on the basis of money from gasoline taxes the beauty of doing this was it meant that

Roads would be for cars after all cars bought and paid for them that’s a point of view captured here by Miller McClintock in 1930 one of the representatives of this transformation a man who himself changed from a advocate of spatial efficiency into an advocate of the motor age perhaps in part because

By 1930 he was working for a national transportation planning firm that was funded entirely by Studebaker the automobile maker so let’s take a look now moving into the city at the other end of the functional classification scale this is today’s functional classification scale we see that on the

Level of the local streets we have what’s called low mobility although pedestrians might find local streets places of high mobility on foot bicyclists might find them higher mobility places than shoulderless highways with a high degree of access I’d like to open this black box this

Smaller black box up a little bit too if we look at land access what’s really meant here is land access for cars as you can yeah as I’ll show you in a moment so I want to ask you in a city what does land access for cars mean this

Is where I’d like to introduce you to an organization that you probably never heard of actually I’m sure you’ve never heard of it because I invented it it’s the American Association of state septic tank officials I made this discount this organization up to make a point if the American Association of state septic

Tank officials had found a way to gain a revenue stream from human waste rather like the automobile industry found a revenue stream from gasoline taxes think about what this might have meant for America’s cities asto could provide us with the right septic tank for any setting including dense cities you could

Check the asto ground book for a functional classification guide and you could find the septic tank that meets your needs whether you’re in Manhattan Kansas or Manhattan New York what would this have meant if we had put septic tanks as the only solution for all human waste in cities as opposed to

Connected sewer systems well for Detroit it might have looked something like this all the orange would be multi-story septic structures the red would be surface septic fields Detroit would have to have been rebuilt to work on the basis of septic tanks crazy right stupid right well actually this map is

Absolutely accurate it’s just that instead of multi-story septic structures those are parking garages and instead of surface septic fields those are surface parking lots all the red and all the orange in downtown Detroit there that you can see is four parking garages and surface parking lots this means that as

Crazy as the idea sounds of converting American cities from sewer systems to septic tanks well this is essentially what America did with its cities when it transform them into automotive cities right so looking again at the black box of local urban streets we have land access for cars which

Of course also land access for parking which strangely doesn’t appear on the functional classification list of the bottom level is local streets not parking lots I don’t think that makes sense because you can’t have cars working without a place to park them this means we need to change the chart

So there’s the chart as it is now I added four cars to land access but if we add parking that’s actually going to be a huge part as the map of Detroit indicated for any mobility system in cities based chiefly or even almost exclusively on cars so actually half

This chart and for talking about a city would have to be dedicated to zero mobility parking lots just as we would have had to transform the city to accommodate septic tanks I think it’s at least arguable that rebuilding cities to accommodate cars as the number one transportation mode makes little to no

More sense than reconstructing cities to accommodate septic tanks instead of sewer systems look at what it does when you in fact conform convert cities to automotive transportation this is Portland Oregon in 1962 this is functional classification applied to a American city this is more recent photo of the typical suburban retail shopping

Center parking lot shaped by zoning codes that require substantial parking I’m sure many of you know if Donald shoots high cost of free parking the the this is the parking aspect of the automotive city right now there’s a there’s a defense for this kind of thing this is a shopping center near Richmond

There’s a defense for rebuilding cities in this rather drastic way I’m sure you’ve heard of it has something to do with America’s distinctive cultural values something you can easily check for yourselves if you google America’s ello and I’m gonna ask you all the in the audience to think for a moment what do

You think you’re going to get if you now add a V to America’s L which will get you from America’s lost treasures to America’s love affair with the automobile I’m not acquainted with America’s lover boys that’s probably another lecture so you can see here a screen full of references to America’s

Love affair with the automobile if Americans have a love affair with the automobile this surely would like love does justify going to extraordinary means to accommodate the beloved right so from this point of view love makes it your love explains everything here right and you see this explanation all over

The popular media and we have seen this explanation all over the popular media for the last 50 years however there’s an origin for this story that presents it in a very different light which is where I hope to conclude today I don’t think you find a love affair with America

Between Americans and automobiles if you go back several decades I mean if you go back a long enough this is Detroit in 1917 long before it was converted to automobiles you find most people getting around on foot or in streetcars not in cars and I think this is an era where

Mobility and speed are definitely not equated the way the functional classification diagram equates them now you find streets where people can roam through them at will and where speed to most users would actually be taken to be a impediment to mobility I mean I want

You to consider for a moment most of the people in this picture from their point of view and that would be pedestrians in this photograph from their point of view speed is an obstacle to mobility and therefore they’re not going to equate the two at all right we even see

Children in the streets very commonly in street photographs from this era here are two girls crossing a street in Philadelphia and we even see children playing in the street which of course oughta make us ask what our streets functions we have been assuming under the functional classification diagram that it has to do

With speed and access for motor vehicles but according to this Newark New Jersey resident streets are for children to play in a bizarre idea to us today a view I found expressed in many different ways as mr. Aronson did here in this era this is an era where the automobile

Comes as a kind of a menace all of the pedestrians in this picture who want to take a streetcar have to cross the pavement to get to the center of the street they’re meant to do that that’s why the streetcars are in the center of the street they are not jaywalkers but

This car is a menace to them this is when in this area you start to see a question that I think is at the root of this whole problem which is the question who belongs in the street from today’s point of view pedestrians in the street like that don’t belong from the

Point of view this photograph taken in Washington DC in 1917 they most definitely do belong this is an era where you find the the question who belongs in the street framed in terms of justice rather than the typical transportation planning the language of today and we find claims of this kind

Like by a Chicago pedestrian in 1915 we see in this era that justice claims based on the culpability of automobiles for growing numbers of fatalities as this chart shows and the character of these fatalities is crucial in cities I mean here we see that three-quarters of the deaths due to Motor Vehicles in

Philadelphia in 1928 were pedestrians and not only were they pedestrians they were children look at the bar for ages four to eight years that’s the longest bar on the chart for our five year age bracket and think about pedestrians in fact that they belonged in streets I

Think you can see how there would be real anger about automobiles and streets anger captured in the cartoons of the time and in letters to the editor like Bessie Buckley’s now this is actually a very interesting statement because by pleasure traffic she means automobiles now we think of

The automobile as a necessity so the contest of her who belongs in the street depends in part on who we can show has actual business being in the street and by calling automobiles pleasure traffic bessie Buckley is questioning their legitimacy industry interestingly though if we asked our streets for motor

Vehicle traffic alone today the answer would be an easy yes right this is not the answer of the 20s or we see the automobile depicted over and over again as the Slayer of innocence and the blame as you can see in this poster you who drive are responsible the blame and the

Responsibility is directed at the pedestrian safety campaigns of the time portray child fatalities as in this case and the children were memorialized as in Baltimore in 1922 that’s the mayor speaking at a monument to children killed in traffic accidents st. Louis and that same thing 1923 this is an

Indication that these child victims are not regarded as the victims of careless parenting there would be no public memorial in that case but rather as the victims of a publicly responsibility for which public authorities were responsible namely automobiles the response is totally contrary to what we

Would tend to have today in other words we would tend to find ways to make speed safe keep children out of the street that’s not the point of view of this era where speed is equated with danger right so there’s a speed is actually treated

As a bad thing to be stopped not as something to be made possible that would have to change before you could have the motor age in the American city season you also see pedestrians presented pathetically these pedestrians are shown as the innocent victims of reckless youths who are cutting them off and the

Solution is amazing and has gotten no attention from anybody the solution was not to accommodate wide radius turns as we’ve had for most of the 20th and now the 21st century but actually to require motorists who are making a left-hand turn to round a center point with the

Explicit reasoning being that this would slow vehicles down and by slowing vehicles down you predict protect legitimate street users namely pedestrians who were regarded as having a more important claim to the street than motor vehicles these are statements in the newspapers of the era that showed that the blame belongs to the automobile

Therefore it’s the automobile that will have to bear the burden of the solution even if that means impairing the motor cars efficiency we see for example in Cincinnati a referendum to require automobiles to be equipped with speed governors that would limit them to 25 miles an hour this got 7,000 signatures

On a on a petition at that time and you see that this becomes the rallying cry for people who want a future for cars and cities to organize to stop it so this ad was a tiny little ad maybe an inch tall in the Cincinnati Enquirer it

Was met by full-page ads like this one denouncing the campaign and in the aftermath of this proposal automobile interest groups locally and before along nationally began to organize to redefine what streets are for redefine them as places for Motor Vehicles this is a headline from automotive industries a trade journal for automotive interest

Groups that says in effect we the auto industry need to get control of this issue if we want to have a future in cities we see automobile clubs like this is from the Ohio Automobile Club that say we have to solve this problem not by restricting the automobile but by restricting

Somebody else namely people rather than machines this is an early variation on the famous NRA slogan which puts the responsibility on people and not the machines that they use the reckless drivers to be singled out as the bearer of responsibility for this and pedestrians are going to have

To bear responsibility as well if automotive interest groups who often call themselves motor them we’re going to succeed in having a future in the American city street so how do you get streets to be places just for cars and not for pedestrians if you recall Bessie Buckley’s question the answer has to be

Streets were made for vehicles to run upon as a Chicago Motor Club president is contending hardly anybody would have agreed with him then now everybody does something had to change people had to learn to it fellow crosswalks nobody’s following them in this picture they have to be educated therefore as George

Graham and auto manufacturer figured out how do you educate them well this is public relations not sort of college level stuff and therefore campaigns public relations campaigns in the style of the new field of public relations that was being innovated at this time by people like Edward Bernays and Ivy Lee

Were actually recruited Boy Scouts to hand out cards like these to pedestrians who were walking the way they had always walked in streets before these pedestrians didn’t know they were jaywalking one way you can tell that is that all of these cards that Boy Scouts handed to jaywalking pedestrians

Explained what jaywalking was the goal was to bring ridicule to pedestrians who are using streets or what Hardy here calls education but this was more frankly called ridicule by EB Lefferts of the Automobile Club of Southern California because this was a public relations man who knew that psychology is more effective

Then say laws at changing behavior so Applied Psychology is the technique here and the jaywalking campaigns were a success that’s not to say that jaywalking ceased of course not not by any means but by 1930 most people thought there was such a thing as jaywalking when just a decade earlier

Fifteen years maybe it was practically unknown you even see clowns ridiculing jaywalkers as these are this clown is actually being rear-ended by a Model T repeatedly the important thing in this picture also is the audience that’s watching and laughing and and thereby taking in the message that they don’t

Should never one of the jaywalkers that will be as ridiculous as this man the Automobile Club of Southern California succeeded in getting an anti jaywalking ordinance through Los Angeles City Council in 1924 and they had this sign put up at their own expense the Auto club’s expense and by 1924 the word is

Actually in an American dictionary for the very first time ever and this is the first definition of the word to appear in the dictionary there was some backlash from pedestrians this one says we ought to condemn J drivers as well this cartoon does this makes the same case condemning motorists of exercising

Right of might over the pavement but clearly this backlash didn’t go nearly as far the automobile interest groups are motored and would also have to change children’s minds you’ll recall that they were the number one victims and of course they’re also the most emotionally potent kind of victim that

You could have of automobiles therefore children have to be taught to stay out of streets Automobile Club of Southern California had children make posters with with preconceived slogans on them then the children would illustrate them like this one and also put out more official looking stuff like this

Coloring book page where in going from the colored picture to the one the child was supposed to color in using the top picture as a model every time their eyes passed from the top picture to the bottom picture the child’s eyes would be the street is dangerous and the street

Is for autos stay out of it right safety patrols are part of the story the original safety patrols like this one actually stopped traffic automobile clubs took these over like Charles Hayes’s Chicago Motors Motor Club in an effort to transform the safety campaigns that have been emotional before into

Something more sanitary something more along the lines of public relations and automobile clubs ultimately triple AAA took over the safety patrols in the late 20s and taught children that streets are for cars as these posters indicate engineers have a picture in this – I don’t mean to exclude them but their

Role was very different from what it is today they were people like Miller McClintock originally were advocating spatial efficiency hardly favorable force cars in city traffic as we can see in these statements by traffic engineers of the time they believed they could get more efficient use of Street space by

Actually restricting automobiles this is when we see for example the first traffic signal like coordination this is the sort of software for the 20s the lines represent green lights of travel for cars this is efficiency thereby increasing traffic capacity delivering results like this State Street in Chicago before coordinated signals and

The parking ban now there’s a parking ban and coordinated signals the parking ban indicates the point of view that if you can reduce the number of cars you can get better traffic conditions rather than say building more roads Street railways are part of this too they contend that they can deliver

Better efficiency if you put people in street cars instead of in automobiles as these ads indicate this is a threat to the people who want a future for cars and cities and the proposal therefore is a radical reconstruction of what the city street is for you can see that in the

Classic design of the cloverleaf interchange and the framework for justifying this is number one contentions that this is delivering freedom that this is what Americans love that this is free market solution as well as a sort of patriotic solution that brings us back to the cloverleaf interchange in 1929 it’s in this era

That this happens using gas tax revenues to make it happen and now we see speed defended and advocated unlike ever before you may have heard of General Motors famous Futurama exhibit at the World’s Fair of 1939 a couple years earlier they actually started this model for a Shell Oil Company campaign

Promising that in the city of tomorrow you’ll be able to drive right through without stopping 50 miles an hour all the way through here we see Miller McClintock and Norman Bel Geddes working together to give us a vision of the future the city of tomorrow as an

Automotive city as we see in the Shell Oil campaign and most famously in the General Motors Futurama exhibit of 1939 right so the solution therefore has come a hundred and eighty degrees the other way now the solution is in the form of super highways which we see charted in

Bureau of Public Roads maps going right through the hearts of cities rebuilding cities for the motor age this of course would take parking as well you might recall the Detroit map that’s a radical transformation that you can see here going on in Boston in the late 50s

Portland in the early 60s and we’re back to this interchange in San Jose today and I want to conclude by offering a little lesson that might be useful for anybody who would like to change the discussion now you will recognize the statement by George Orwell I’m sure well

General Motors recognized it as well they funded a program called the DuPont show of the week they did a documentary in 1961 hosted by Groucho Marx where these phrases were used this is the beginning of the love affair with the automobile thesis that I mentioned to you earlier this is a rewriting of

History to justify reconstructing cities for the motor Age to justify the kind of thing that happened in central Detroit with parking garages and surface Lots this shows you that the phrase came almost out of nowhere about that time and has been with us ever since and that

Brings us to the world that we have today a world that I’m suggesting we look at again through the telescope of history as Galileo looked at the moon again with an actual optical telescope thank you so road design manuals really started to spread during the 20th century during

During a time when President Eisenhower wanted to create a network of Highways to move massive amounts of military equipment this is kind of the next level just beyond what Peter was describing if the Communists invaded we need the military to swarm as fast as possible I mean that’s the mindset at the time

So naturally interstates were designed to accommodate long distance trips at very high speeds and as Peter showed us this was a time when people were being chased out of the streets by the special interest groups and the powerful politicians for the decades that followed it just got worse and now we’re

Led to believe that a minimum forty five mile an hour design speed and minimum twelve foot wide lanes is a requirement for busy streets even if the surrounding land uses need more livable sustainable solutions so even though we have this filing system this the functional classification we file all our streets

In the highway drawer the classification should be appropriate to the function of the street that’s how it got the name right but if you think about all the streets that should function to process high-speed traffic and be hostile to walk and bike then you missed the point

Of having a hierarchy to begin with so here’s how the functional class generally gets applied this is a variation on Peters name earlier this is why you can never guess whether or not the street between your house in the grocery store is a local Road a collector or arterial they all look the

Same because they all serve the same master vehicular traffic these two streets are marvels of modern engineering standards both of them function as connectors between residential commercial and recreation nodes they’re both in densely populated areas and yet they might as well be filed in the highway drawer you saw this

Campaigns language is powerful and I’m sure you’ve seen these engineering terms before all very positive right the road was upgraded from a collector to an arterial it’ll be more efficient with extra through lanes what’s there to complain about sometimes when the corridor gets a motorized upgrade the widening will be

Used as an excuse not to provide sidewalks but with or without a side sometimes it’s by choice sometimes out of necessity more lanes are built those lanes fill up with new vehicle trips we find ourselves in this vicious cycle that increases levels of irritation and financial burden so I think you see all

This you have to acknowledge how ridiculous our country’s road design habits have been right ever since World War two if we don’t we’re just gonna keep seeing more of the same I said earlier I think we should be questioning everything that includes the engineering language if someone tells you that a

Street needs another lane double left turns all that to be improved ask like Peter sat at the beginning ask who the improvement is for chances are the walkers in the cyclist being discriminated against don’t see the improvement so here’s a common argument I hear Andy you’re talking about the

۱۹۹۰s Co T is connect land use and transportation we understand context now yes yes they do and here’s what it looks like walkable land uses are adjacent to each other separated by this hostile asphalt barrier so it starts when a developer proposes a plan to bring in some new

Business maybe a few businesses and then it’s the job of the traffic engineers to predict how many cars will use the street based on the assumption that all streets should serve all cars at the busiest possible time of day so this is all for generally one hour out of a

۲۴-hour period and then the traffic engineers tell the community how many new lanes or stoplights are required then the local government or the state or sometimes even the federal government pays to build more infrastructure and so if the businesses do move in they immediately come car oriented establishments that’s

How land use and transportation are typically connected and that’s why you see so many so-called mixed-use developments in the last ten years failing because there’s still car oriented so there are a lot of reasons why our current use or misuse of functional classification should be widely discussed but the single most

Important issue is public health if a person walking across an intersection is struck by a car at twenty miles an hour the chances of survival are very high it’s near ninety five percent if a person is struck by a car at forty miles per hour the chance of death is almost 85% wide

Sidewalks and painted stripes across an intersection do not necessarily equal livable transportation conditions now I have to include this because anyone who says the types of things that Peter and I are saying and probably many of you are accused constantly of waging a war on cars look stand your ground on this

Planning for human beings to be able to walk and bike people of all ages and abilities is not some terrible attack on cars planning for people promotes freedom I like to say this do you love America then give people the freedom to cross the street safely if terms like

Livability or walkability or being hijacked just change the conversation change the conversation so that people realize they’ve been conned with an illusion of truth make the idea of freedom as broad as you want the freedom of modal choice the freedom to check your mailbox without being slaughtered

The freedom for your elderly parent to get some fresh air the freedom for your kids to walk to school so they don’t become part of the obesity trend noisy advocate for public involvement I want people to speak up and be active in shaping their neighborhoods and streets but the post-world War two folklore

Design has been so effective that people don’t even realize they’re being discriminated against the propaganda campaigns from the special interest groups were incredibly effective it’s hard to argue against traffic engineering language that sounds so positive upgraded arterioles efficiency improved service and so on so you need to be prepared to educate your friends

And neighbors before you just ask if they think an extra lane or two is a good idea and then jump on it and say well the public wants more lanes Henry Ford used to say if he gave his customers what they wanted he would have given them a faster horse we don’t need

More of the same looking for a faster horse is what led the suburban sprawl and highways ripping apart the urban areas all across America if we really care about public safety about the health and welfare of the general public then we shouldn’t leave functional classifications of the engineers it’s

Too important for one group to have a monopoly on it so here’s an amazing truth it is possible to plan and design streets at a human scale and brace yourself still accommodate vehicular traffic the freedoms I mentioned earlier completely possible if there’s one positive outcome of the recession that

We’re in I think it’s that so many communities can’t afford the build terrible roads they’re scaling back they right size their streets and what they’re finding is the results are very rewarding the motivation to take action I think has to come from conviction conviction introduces a moral element

It’s a firmly held opinion that means so much to you that you want to persuade other people tradition is allowing the well-meaning but misguided engineers and special interests to determine how the streets function and who belongs in them not all traditions are bad but when it

Comes to the public street space many of them are convictions about good safe streets shouldn’t make you feel embarrassed I think that that happens all the time to us were made to feel lowly human scale design is not a radical concept anymore thanks in large part to the

Internet we can get a hold of all these great public domain campaigns that Peter was showing roundabouts are just one example of how common sense has been applied by traffic engineers they fought the idea for years but once the incredible safety benefits sunk in deities all over the country started to

Implement roundabouts policies it’s hard to argue with an intersection that can almost completely eliminate fatalities so think of this engineers are problem solvers the best way to become allies with them is to appreciate that skill they offer don’t tear them down look at what they’re good at but I can tell you

As someone who has trained as a civil engineer there needs to be some reconditioning you might stare at these letters and imagine an obscure code but if the problem solvers are allowed to be flexible encouraged to be flexible using creativity to expand their cone of vision they’ll probably give you some

Pleasant surprises professional engineers are committed to providing safe conditions for the traveling public so our planners we should be natural allies we have the same goal when it comes to moving people from point A to point B now I’m going to share a few specific examples from Virginia’s

Department of Transportation that I hope encourage you encourage you in the sense that a DoD can be open-minded and to give you some ideas to share in your state transportation efficient land-use and design is a project that represents a dramatic shift in the way V dot connects land use and transportation

It applies academic concepts to the streets take a look at the website they’ve created you’ll be able to reach this later if you can’t write it down now but new Urbanists will find areas in need of improvement but this is still a huge step in the right direction for

Virginia this might be a shock to you but yes a state VOT is advocating the conversion of Auto centric corridors to the human scale places these are actual images from B dot from that guy that they they let me share with you all if any of you were in Chicago for the

Annual conference you might have seen the functional classification session that explored this document in much more detail but here are some of the things you’ll find you want to blow the mind of a traffic engineer you know tell them how VDOT’s publications have been talking about multimodal networks this

Is the same group that’s responsible for dealing with functional classification issues in Virginia planners talk about walking and biking as the fundamental modes of transport that’s normal for us here’s the state do T doing it they’re using positive language to describe walking who thought that was possible definitely steal this stuff if you’re

Looking for ideas here’s more maybe I should give you a spoiler alert before sharing some of the best parts but these are all VDOT’s policies and guides this is one of my favorite because it pulls no punches you will accommodate the fundamental modes in every possible

Stage of a project and yes I’m a roundabout salesman Virginia is not alone when it comes to Pro roundabout policies there are 30 states including the District of Columbia that go on record promoting roundabouts I wanted to include this is an example because so many states intentionally refused to

Build roundabouts on streets filed in the arterial drawer and that’s because I mean they’re the statistically the safest form of at-grade intersection it can keep corridors from getting excessively wide so if you want to tame your arterioles take a look at roundabouts the Department of rail and public transportation is another Virginia

Agency they just recently completed a design guide that has a direct impact on how streets in Virginia are planned and designed instead of designing streets based on an arbitrary name and a table the RPT has developed a transect approach to filing streets several years ago you’re probably familiar with

Congress for the New Urbanism and an ite the Institute of Transportation engineers getting together they published the designing walkable urban thoroughfares it quickly became a recommended practice by ite and now in Virginia the DRP T is incorporating it into their design guide so the manual describes how different streets function

It’s not just how different volumes of Motor Vehicles are served the users given some clues and rules of thumb for deciding which modes need priority v-not plans to update their road design manual this fall and they’re gonna incorporate this dr FPT multimodal system design guide in there so you know if you’re an

Engineer if you’re a road designer and you you want to design a road in Virginia you’re gonna see this guide so time will tell how the engineering community reacts but in several months this will be on the street whether or not the engineers resist common-sense the change is coming so this is exciting

We’d love to hear if your city or state is doing something similar so here’s the recap the way we interpret streets is critical if your infrastructure plans look and feel like a highway and speak up tell the unfashionable truths don’t worry about flattery start with education remember the lessons of

Traditional American streets it is possible for functional classifications that coexist with active streets active for humans but not if you let traffic engineers control all of your assumptions when you consider the entirety of human existence the auto centric era is a tiny blip historians are going to look back on it as an

Unfortunate period that ended early in the 21st century when common sense prevailed I suppose this is me poking you in the shoulder a bit you feel a bit more empowered now to talk about the purpose and function of streets maybe you’re thinking about convictions versus traditions so what are you going to do

About it it’s impossible to make livable streets without upsetting the applecart you don’t have to be a transportation expert to question the status quo but hopefully we’ve given you some ideas about what questions to begin asking go be your office revolutionary if everyone around you is happy with your work push harder

Flip the hierarchy just because you classify your streets with names like primary arterial doesn’t mean you can’t give the highest priority to the fundamental modes of travel traffic engineers have no trouble imagining the future here’s what they see 3% compounded annual growth in automobiles what do you see

Better yet what do you see when you picture the future of your community I’ll bet you’re gonna picture specific events not the possible traffic operations the boy in the sidewalk won’t remember if he waited 24 seconds at a red light or whether he arrived at 18 or 25 miles per hour he’ll remember

Spending a day with his dad and brother on a tactical urbanism mission we hope this information is useful and we’re looking forward to taking some questions in a minute and we also hope you share what you learned even if you think Peter and I are completely insane and you want

To publicly disagree that’s fine open and candid debate keeps us all sharp so we’ll leave you with this bit of optimism there’s really no excuse to continue the folklore Engineering let’s learn from the past and reclaim our streets Indian Peter this was wonderful thank you we have quite a bank of questions so

I’d like to just jump right in if we can our first question the challenge we have here in Florida is that despite our best efforts to complete our streets and proposed context sensitive solutions 2010 census indicates only 5% of trips are made by non auto modes how do we

Justify expenditure for non auto modes unless we base our transportation expenditure based on driving versus non driving population or some other way of rethinking away not to put all our transportation eggs in one basket and through Road diets can learn to do more with less of our pavement infrastructure

And this actually it was a repeating question hot topic at the beginning of the question was there I missed it was there a context of are we talking about heavily developed areas I’m assuming we’re talking about places where people are that’s correct okay so I guess my first response would

Be just simply ask that of yourselves when you’re considering which projects the fund are there people around I mean Peters got the backdrop of history and how things shifted but in terms of what you can start doing with your streets if you think about accommodating people first that’s how

We’re gonna get out of this the sprawl condition we’re in I mean for a lot of economic reasons that we could do a whole other webinar on we can’t afford to keep building the way we are so if we keep if we keep designing streets and our settlement patterns just based

Purely on the automobile then we’re gonna still be trapped in our automobiles and none of us are gonna be able to afford it I guess one of those guides I don’t think I had it in here but the the CNU and ite guide is a great

One to begin with that’s one that states like Virginia are starting to incorporate in their design manuals and more and more states and cities are taking books like that not as they a very tight prescriptive means of designing everything every single street but as a way of reminding people

Engineers and planners that there’s a great amount of flexibility built in and even FHWA who often takes the blame because they’re you know responsible for interstates they’ve been advocating for many years for engineers to be flexible to use judgment so I would say whether you’re talking about suburban corridors

Or you’re talking about downtown streets in a small town or a city center think about the people first thing about first people on foot and then accommodate people riding a bike and then will be able to handle car traffic another thing to think about is in terms of city areas

Think about the places you like to go visit do you like to go visit on when you’ve got a week or two weeks of vacation are you gonna go to someplace that’s all sprawled out or are you gonna go to a destination where you might not

Be able to drive around a lot especially some of the older cities of Europe those there’s so many examples of places where you just physically can’t drive very much just a small thing to what Andy had to say I would never let anybody use data about current usage to tell us that

This means that this tells us what people want in other words we’ve had 85 years of Auto centric planning at extraordinary expense to rebuild America and especially American cities for cars and it is hardly surprising that after 85 years of a multi-billion dollar conversion effort we end up in a place

Where people end up driving moreover when people choose not to drive very often in for many people including for me the choice not to drive has more to do with how unpleasant it is to get around by any other means in a world made for cars then it has to do with any

Real objective preference for it thank you um the this next question actually I think is really great self-driving cars are expected to be available on the market within the next ten years assume that self-driving cars will be programmed to stop or avoid hitting obstacles human another could the advent

Of self-driving cars as a dominant form of transportation in turn allow pedestrians to quote take back the streets so I’m not a high tech genius I can barely swipe my phone the way I’m supposed to but this is a topic that does fascinate me I think the quick answer is yes there’s

All there are all sorts of amazing possibilities there are huge question marks which if you like a little bit of chaos is exciting we are gonna have to seriously figure out how we’re gonna redesign our existing patterns because Google and Audi and some others are talking about maybe between five and

Seven years these cars are gonna be on the street and I forget how many tens of thousands the Google car is already driven but they’re the ones that get most of the press but they’re not the only car doing it so some of the little technical glitches are apparently that

They just have to solve are things like in a dense urban area how do I know if a person standing on the corner is a signpost or if they’re getting ready to cross the street now they call it a little glitch it’s a human life so

Obviously that’s a big deal but the car travel driving through traffic on its own is it’s just a few years away and then the other thing that brings in is car sharing opportunities they’re already talking about how once once people get used to the idea of sitting

In a vehicle that they are not controlling and the vehicle can be smaller you can have more opportunities for shared vehicles and then the idea of parking isn’t such a big deal you you have a smaller fleet overall this is Peter I just like to add one thing to

What Andy had to say which is I’m not very enthusiastic I realized that self-driving cars might be able to make more efficient use of space by having shorter safe following distances better response and so on but I fear that world of people going around in self-driving cars will still be a world

Made for cars they’ll still have to park they’ll still in other words it still be possible to have a functional classification scheme like we have now that prioritizes them in ways that makes people or discourages people from walking riding bikes or taking mass transit and I think that would be a

Shame and I fear that the self-driving car is being sold in part as a way to preserve a world built for cars when I would suggest that what we really need is to make a world for primarily for people who are on foot on bikes or in

Mass transit at least in cities great the next question there were a few people that asked a question similar to this I’ve heard that engineers feel immense pressure to conform to quote folklore engineering because they risk losing their license or job if they take any risks that don’t pan out is there reform

And the professional engineering needed to further this cause the short answer is yes I mean I guess one easy way to start reforming is for engineers to start using better judgment I mean that I say common sense lightly but it’s it’s so true I mean we’d have tens of

Thousands of people buying on highways every single year so for a long period of time I think it was 2000 to 2009 we had about 40,000 people die every single year on highways and so it’s not as though the current standards are these amazingly safe places you probably many

People have heard about the recent train tragedy in Spain I saw somebody comments on that saying you know 80 people dying is tragic in the in America we call that Thursday I mean that’s one day of commuter deaths so the current system is not this nice safe people friendly

System so it definitely needs reform as far as the licensure goes that sort of thing that’s why FHWA and now a shto C nu ite some of these organizations are putting together guides they’re they’re trying not to prescribe how every streets should look there are ways of reminding

Designers that streets don’t have to just serve fast moving cars and this is especially true I mean cities are always a special case because they’re a destination once you get to a city you don’t need to be speeding through you’ve arrived so you should be able to be on

Foot and move around freely and that sort of thing you shouldn’t have to worry about crossing mid-block in the city and this is Peter just to add to what Andy said I would I would say that the professions and the professional bodies have something to learn from the

Experience of other professions I would give the example of medicine mainstream medicine was treating people in ways that was turning a lot of patients off in particular women but people in general were feeling treated like objectified diseased vessels rather than as human beings who needed to be cared

For as human beings and the result was the the growth of alternative medicine some of it good some of it not birthing centers instead of obstetrics wards and so on and believably mainstream medicine caught up a redesigned hospital care learned something from other disciplines and listened but above all listened to

Patients and in listening to patients finally and somewhat belatedly recovered some of their lost credibility and I’d suggest that the professional bodies in transportation planning should take a lesson from that and I think as Andy indicated they have already begun any advice on how to challenge the local

Fire marshal demanding wider roads or challenging the narrowing of existing streets that’s that’s quite a common question that’s also very common question when talking about designing roundabouts if I know there are some cities in particular that have already put together a list of resources for that exact question because it comes

Up so often there are a few committees on Transportation Research Board that have been dealing with this Clearwater Florida is one to reach out to Carmel Indiana is another one and there’s another it might actually might be coming out of the state office in Indiana the governor’s office but there

Are a few that have been pulling together resources for fire fire marshals and anybody dealing with that one statement that I’ve heard some engineers make who engineers who want to right-size streets they say that the fire department should not have a monopoly on public safety and what they

Mean by that is if you just simply design what wide streets to accommodate a huge vehicle then it’s kind of a boys with toys mentality where they’re just gonna keep getting bigger and bigger trucks what cities in other countries have done is amazingly had smaller vehicles made and when you consider that

Smaller streets means safer streets there are fewer times that you actually have to call the fire department so wouldn’t it be great if we have streets that were so safe that the fire department didn’t have to drive around them all that often another example like this would be San Francisco they’ve got

A ton of 9-foot wide lanes it gets we all know they’ve got buses and fire departments down and out in San Francisco also and to join this to the self-driving vehicles thing why not have say 10 self-driving tiny fire trucks instead of one huge one each with the

Tank of water on it or whatever that you could deploy remotely from your laptop in the fire station and they go and hose down the thing and and although no one of them has very much water ten of them can get there and those 10 are going to

Get there more quickly because they can navigate around obstacles more easily and so on and why not build the fire trucks to serve the city instead of build the city to serve the fire trucks what about the jobs to home disconnect mixed use facilities often have a

Majority of jobs that don’t pay enough for that person to live there the difference between now and back in the day before cars for the primary mode of transportation is that the many of the pedestrians and those pictures probably lived very close to the place they worked shopped and recreative this may

Not be the case right now so there’s no fast fix for this but there are ways that we can begin this and I guess suburban infill is is one of those there are a lot of examples in fact some of the pictures that I had are areas of a

City that actually looked like the suburbs where people over the years have been forced to be dependent on their car the housing developments have been pushed further and further back and and you can trace it back to traffic engineering determining how wide streets had to be it to the point that that

Housing developments were pushed so far back but people still have to walk you still and this is especially true with with lower income families they will still be walking in medians on high-speed roads they’ll be crossing mid-block because the intersections are so wide that they can’t possibly safely cross so we can’t

Just pretend that people aren’t still walking it’s just very uncomfortable and very dangerous so we I would say we’ve got to start somewhere so why not since we know what the problem is let’s go ahead and start fixing the problem let’s let’s start making streets better so the development does more naturally come

Back closer to jobs and this is Peter I would just add that for one thing this is a reflection of costs costs change we are likely to see fuel costs rising in such a way that people will of their own accord move to more densely settled places where the distances aren’t as

Great they can do this as a result of a sort of unplanned cost change or in fact it would be possible to use taxation of motor vehicle fuels as a way to promote the trend we’ve certainly seen a demographic trend in recent years where a lot of people have found living

In dense urban neighborhoods much more attractive than an earlier generation did I would say there is one more component and this is to learn a lesson from General Motors Futurama exhibit and show a vision a positive vision of a future of people living in dense residential areas not dense like

The lower Eastside of a hundred years ago but dense compared to the typical American suburb of today and present it as an attractive alternative and with a little lesson from public relations I think that could go a long way this is related to a point that Andy had just made which comes first

Transportation change or land-use change John says when I when I work on a redevelopment project I am dependent on the existing transportation network and existing commuting patterns one project does not have the influence to change model choice but if I provide the parking people one I am encouraging further driving how can redevelopment

Projects help move toward long term commuting change while being successful in the short term this actually gets right back to Peter’s point I think about public relations there are some very successful developers now who are seeing amazing progress with their projects where they really felt convicted that they would make I mean

They thought this is a good development this clustered area I’m gonna make good money if I do this it’s not a charity case this is a good development project and then it ends and then they figure the transportation issues will work themselves out locate of course always depends on local authorities being

Supportive so whether you’ve got a mayor or if you’re talking at the state level the governor’s office do some research about dense developments especially from some some of the bigger name organizations that have been doing this around the United States not necessarily huge size developments but brands that have been

Around where they could have actually afford to take a chance and so we can learn some good lessons from them and then I would say another another way of looking at it is if you take a look at FHWA ‘s liveability manual I think it was 2010 that they published this they

Give examples of transportation livability and it’s a it’s before and after case studies where you can see where basically hearts and minds are changed in the design and political community about what good development can look like so yes if you’re dealing with the very small like a corner drugstore project chances are you’re

Gonna get severe pushback about doing a traffic impact study and forecasting traffic and growing traffic and all that sort of thing but a lot of times it’s it’s coming out of a little bit of ignorance people just don’t understand that you can’t possibly have that much growth all the time forever

I mean how if that’s the case then we’ll never stop widening roads the only thing I would add this is Peter is that this there will probably be a change in some of the demands for some of the things that the planner you mentioned is frustrated about moreover I I wonder if

If all the people all the developers all the planners who shared that frustration talks to each other use the web to connect with each other and organized if they couldn’t use that kind of coordination to propose an alternative model that and to show it off in such a

Way that people would demand it and you wouldn’t have to give it to them despite them one last add-on say have the people asking that question Google guerilla urbanism or tactical urbanism things like that where people on their own are taking the initiative to do some small-scale projects and then it ends up

Being so successful that the local politicians I have no choice but to support and then endorse it I guess going along with with that and this will unfortunately have to be our last question how do we get around the quote we can’t afford to consider that response in the immediate timeframe

Maybe I’m misunderstanding the question but I don’t know how we can afford to do what we’re doing today we’re in an incredible financial mess especially in our country but partly because we’ve been just designing for the automobile so you know so many people just can’t afford to live in the places they want

To live or live close to where they work because they have to find a house that’s 18 miles from where they work and they have to they’re stuck on their car their slaves or their cars it’s not about right now we’ve been spending all this money on infrastructure and what we’ve

Done is gone into incredible debt for transportation infrastructure and at the same time or bankrupting ourselves so I would say be from the financial argument all the positive arguments about good financial cents are on the side of compact livable solutions I’d like to add that to emphasize Andy’s point it

Really helps to see what that looks like and I would recommend that audience members who don’t know about this try it just googling or typing into YouTube joven ring hov e n RI ng it is a beautiful work of infrastructure that accommodates far more travelers than your average grade-separated

Interchange which is exactly what it is but it costs a fraction of what any great separated interchange in the United States calls because it costs because this is in the Netherlands and this grade-separated interchanges a work of art serves only bicyclists and in so doing it takes people off the road so

That you don’t have to go to the incredible expense of widening the highway or introducing grade-separated interchanges for automobiles and it it is a prestige work that’s also functional and cost-effective an example of how as Andy said we can’t afford to keep what we’re still doing

Right now Andy and Peter thank you so much for the webcast presentation today it was very eye-opening and there were some really interesting points made and and I’m sorry for those folks that didn’t get their questions answered but this presentation is going to be available online and Andy and Peter’s

Contact information will be there so if you so choose to get your question answered you can go ahead and email them and on the screen right now that I hope you’re seeing are just some reminders and the things that you might not have seen at the beginning of the

Presentation so for those still in attendance I just want to remind you again to log your cm credits for attending today’s webcast by visiting planning org slash cm selecting today’s date and the presentation title and this webcast is available for one-and-a-half CM credits and again we are recording

This webcast and it will be made available on YouTube by searching planning webcasts and this concludes today’s session thank you everyone for attending and again thank you to our speakers Andy and Peter and our sponsor for this webcast – New Urbanism division and thanks everybody have a great weekend thank you

ID: J9HjJ78Ma7w
Time: 1375301416
Date: 2013-08-01 00:40:16
Duration: 01:29:58


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