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  پرینتخانه » فيلم تاریخ انتشار : 01 نوامبر 2012 - 21:48 | 24 بازدید | ارسال توسط :

فيلم: ارزیابی اثرات طوفان سندی: مصاحبه با گاوین اسمیت، AICP

Title:ارزیابی اثرات طوفان سندی: مصاحبه با گاوین اسمیت، AICP جیم شواب، مدیر مرکز تحقیقات برنامه ریزی خطر APA، با گاوین اسمیت، دکترای AICP، که مدیر اجرایی مرکز مخاطرات ساحلی است، که بخشی از مراکز عالی وزارت امنیت داخلی است، مصاحبه می کند. دکتر اسمیت همچنین مدیر اجرایی مرکز مطالعات مخاطرات و بلایای طبیعی در دانشگاه […]

Title:ارزیابی اثرات طوفان سندی: مصاحبه با گاوین اسمیت، AICP

جیم شواب، مدیر مرکز تحقیقات برنامه ریزی خطر APA، با گاوین اسمیت، دکترای AICP، که مدیر اجرایی مرکز مخاطرات ساحلی است، که بخشی از مراکز عالی وزارت امنیت داخلی است، مصاحبه می کند. دکتر اسمیت همچنین مدیر اجرایی مرکز مطالعات مخاطرات و بلایای طبیعی در دانشگاه کارولینای شمالی در چپل هیل است. ضبط شده در ۳۱ اکتبر ۲۰۱۲٫


قسمتي از متن فيلم: This is uh jim schwab i’m the manager of the hazards planning research center and project manager for planning for post-disaster recovery next generation a project we’re doing with the federal emergency management agency to rewrite the well-known 1998 green book on the same topic and our recovery news blog is a part of

That project and as a result of hurricane sandy and the impacts of that super storm we’re initiating a special series here of conversations with leading thinkers and figures in the field of recovery planning to take a look at what kinds of issues we may be facing in the northeast of the united states

In connection with the impacts of hurricane sandy so with me today is uh gavin smith who uh certainly has had some major uh contributions to this field uh he is the executive director of the center for the study of natural hazards and disasters uh at the university of north carolina in chapel hill

He is the author of a 2011 book titled planning for post-disaster recovery a review of the united states post-disaster united states disaster assistance framework excuse me which is uh through island press and he previously i know has some major experience in having served as the governor’s coordinator on recovery

And renewal in mississippi after hurricane katrina so gavin welcome and i assume we have some very interesting topics to talk about with you um why don’t we start with the very idea of this uh superstorm or what’s been called by some a frankenstorm the the interesting combination of impacts

Produced in hurricane sandy the unique track and path that it took uh how it interacted with other storm fronts uh within the region to produce the uh the situation that we ended up watching uh so much of this week um can you tell us a little bit about

Some of those interrelated impacts that you see in in this particular case and and what implications they have for recovery sure and thanks for thanks for having me um sandy i think is unique for a number of reasons one is uh its breadth uh and we you’ve mentioned that briefly but uh

A storm that uh measures somewhere approximately two thousand miles eighteen hundred two thousand miles in breath uh the duration of the storm it sat offshore it caused major coastal erosion it piled water up on the eastern seaboard when it came on shore significant storm surge so the characteristics of the storm were

Significant it also caused major snowfall in the appalachian mountains long intensive rainfall in major metropolitan areas with a lot of impervious surface so there’s all these issues associated with the the size the duration of the storm but also its impact on human settlements and the form with which

Those human settlements exist some uh range from small barrier island communities that had not seen the storm for many years so the the building codes that were adopted prior to the advent of for example the ash wednesday storm that hit in the 60s were very different from today so there was a

Major loss of houses on barrier islands that didn’t meet more recent codes significant impacts on major urban infrastructure transit lines subways rail systems and a variety of the transportation networks of which these major urban areas depend uh major flooding in uh communities ranging from from manhattan to fire

Island uh to new jersey so just the breadth the duration and the fact that it impacted a series of major metropolitan areas really leads us to uh to wonder and it’ll be interesting to see the extent of the damages which still have have not been fully calculated

Yeah it’s hard to imagine a storm like this hitting a more densely packed combination of urban areas than than it did short of the direct hit on manhattan right um can you tell us a little about what that does in terms of both uh the planning capacity

To deal with the problem in these kinds of urban areas it’s a very different situation imagine from mississippi and in louisiana in that sense and also the extent of damage to uh infrastructure in this case yeah you know it’s it’s uh in some ways it’s i think it’s unprecedented in the

U.s for a coastal storm to impact uh the as you said these significant cluster of major metropolitan areas and how they’re interrelated through uh various types of infrastructures be they roads bridges subways and so forth telecommunications and so on much of them for example are located underground literally below the water table

Subways being filled with water not being able to turn on power systems substations in new jersey being located in blood-prone areas and then going out and having a cascading effect throughout the area and then even thinking about the idea of these um settlements uh being so dense

So densely populated and all of the impervious surfaces uh and the impact it has on a major urban flooding uh is in in many ways unprecedented in the us yeah one of the things that you discussed extensively in your book had to do with the governance systems

That come into play in recovery uh can you tell us a little bit about how that aspect of recovery is going to play out in the northeast i mean this is certainly an area that is as you said very dense very urban uh consequently should have we would think a lot of

Complex governance systems that could be brought into play to assist recovery but could also make it more complicated it could for example if you were just look at housing and the role of housing and post-disaster recovery looking at federal state and local government programs often narrowly defined to meet

A very specific need and client base in disasters they’re not necessarily targeting a particular group of people necessarily and so how do you how do you reconcile existing programs both pre and post disaster that offer aid for housing as being one example with the needs that may be uncovered in this event

Also thinking about all of the privately held infrastructure that is damaged and all the people in all of these metropolitan areas depend on that infrastructure but if in fact it’s privately owned what role and effect the private sector corporations and these transit um the owners of this transit

System uh they will honestly be on them to repair this there’ll be intense pressure to rebuild it back quickly which brings up another really important issue is this this notion between the speed of recovery and the notion of stepping back and saying should we be rebuilding uh our infrastructure our communities our

Housing differently and by that i mean how do we inject risk reduction into the reconstruction process and if you’re to do it through government that’s one way and there’s a series of grant programs that allow you to do that fairly cumbersome to administer difficult to administer but also trying to for example encourage

The private sector to do the same how do we do that how do we incentivize the private sector to change the way the location where and how they build infrastructure and that’s just one example of the public-private partnership non-profits will play a key role in distribution of aid particularly

To socially vulnerable populations and the populations that may be reticent to reach out for federal assistance again given the complexities and the bureaucracies associated with federal aid oftentimes non-profits play a key stop gap measure thinking about foundations and the provision of financial aid to those people that may not be able to

Take out a loan the role of insurance do they have do homeowners have adequate insurance do coastal property owners have adequate insurance given that if insurance is run through the private sector with the importance exception of the flood insurance program which is a federal program uh all of these issues are intertwined and

Connected in ways that uh if in fact you don’t have a strong robust interconnected system of governance in place uh recovery is extremely difficult yeah which also let me raise one final question there connected with governance which is the role of transportation because that’s clearly taken a big hit

Both of the major airports in new york city are on the waterfront were flooded out consequently non-functional some people might say oh well what a great opportunity for amtrak no such luck they had to do massive inspections of their tracks just to see if their tracks were acceptable to run trains

So they can’t run at the same time so in essence nothing’s running right now right right um and of course the those airports are under the authority of the port authority of new york and new jersey the same folks who owned the world trade center that got hit back in 911

Those transportation systems introduced a number of issues in terms of funding uh streams to underwrite recovery as well as uh who’s in charge of what can talk about some of those issues and related to just getting people moving again in the area right that’s no doubt in fact uh in

Places like new york new jersey philadelphia a lot of these areas washington dc all of the the communities are so reliant on public transit and many of them are dependent on the subway system again which is highly vulnerable to coastal flooding new york and new jersey being the most recent

Example it’s going to be extremely difficult to de-water these facilities in fact they’re in the process of doing that now and i don’t know how long that will take and also given the fact that you have electrical systems and others that are uh adjacent to and or

Buried uh or are located underground i should say um the idea of electrical systems getting wet that’s a bad combination and so uh thinking this through i also mentioned you know the notion of substations that are going to be powering these transportation networks they too in many cases particularly new jersey three major

Substations uh were inundated by floodwaters and so you know there’s all kinds of problems uh more recently um saw on the news that uh a hospital in new york city uh you know their secondary power system uh backup generator where it was located but it didn’t seem to function so they had to

Evacuate the entire hospital and that’s just one critical facility uh that was directly impacted i’m sure there are many others okay uh any other broad concluding thoughts you want to offer us to end this uh i think one of the biggest one of the big concerns i think a lot of us that

Study this and are involved in practice is uh and again it’s it people are sometimes reticent to mention this uh two times don’t necessarily make a a trend uh but if in fact we’re going to be experiencing more coastal storms in the mid-atlantic and new england states that haven’t had them for decades

And they’re highly populated uh coupled with the idea of climate change sea level rise perhaps intensification of storms you know these issues are are important for us to recognize and contemplate because the idea of abandoning new york city is not an option on the other hand developing massive protective infrastructures to protect

Uh these huge urban settlements is another extremely costly and in many cases problematic option as well so the the the sobering question is what next yeah where do you go from here well gavin thank you for uh being with us today and uh for all the people watching this

Uh i invite you to uh stay in touch with what’s going on at apa we will be continuing to discuss a number of possible initiatives through apa we will be tracking those on this blog at blogs.planning.org post disaster so watch for us on the recovery news blog for further information thank you

ID: dyEFuoqp4_U
Time: 1351793934
Date: 2012-11-01 21:48:54
Duration: 00:13:17

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